sweat

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sweat

or

perspiration,

fluid secreted by the sweat glands of mammalian skin and containing water, salts, and waste products of body metabolism such as urea. The dissolved solid content of sweat is only one eighth that of an equal volume of urine, the body's main vehicle of salt excretion; however, excessive sweating may produce severe salt loss (see heat exhaustionheat exhaustion,
condition caused by overexposure to sunlight or another heat source and resulting in dehydration and salt depletion, also known as heat prostration. The symptoms are severe headaches, weakness, dizziness, blurred vision, and sometimes unconsciousness.
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). Human sweat glands are of two types, eccrine and apocrine. The eccrine glands, found everywhere on the body surface, are vital to the regulation of body temperature. Evaporation of the sweat secreted by the eccrines cools the body, dissipating the heat generated by metabolic processes. The release of such sweat is usually imperceptible; yet even in cool weather an individual will lose from 1 pt to 3 qt of fluid per day. Only when environmental conditions are especially hot or humid, or during periods of exercise or emotional stress, does the output of sweat exceed the rate of evaporation, so that noticeable beads of moisture appear on the skin. When such conditions are extreme, the body may lose up to 20 qt of fluid per day. Production of sweat is controlled by the temperature-regulating center of the hypothalamus. The apocrine glands, which occur only in the armpits and about the ears, nipples, navel, and anogenital region, are scent glands. They function in response to stress or sexual stimulation, playing no part in temperature regulation. The apocrines exude a sticky fluid quite different from the watery sweat of the eccrines. Apocrine fluid is rich in organic substances that are odorless when fresh but are quickly degraded by bacteria on the skin to produce characteristic odors. Copious sweating in the armpits comes not from the apocrines but from the eccrines interspersed among them.

Sweat

 

a colorless, slightly opalescent fluid secreted by the sweat glands.

Human sweat contains 98 to 99 percent water, about 0.1 percent urea, uric acid, creatinine, serine, fats, volatile fatty acids, cholesterol, and alkaline metal salts, including chlorides (NaCl predominates— about 0.3 percent), phosphates, and sulfates, as well as sulfuric acid esters and aromatic oxygen acids. The secretion of the sebaceous glands is always mixed with the sweat that gathers on the skin surface. The composition of sweat depends on the condition of the body, the intensity of sweat excretion, and the presence of various substances in the blood. Sweat may be acid, with a pH of 3.8–6.2, or alkaline, when there is decomposition of urea and production of ammonia. In man from 0.5 to 10 liters of sweat or more per day are excreted, depending on intensity of muscle work, temperature of the external environment, and the quantity of water imbibed. Thus, with heavy muscle work, sweat contains a significant quantity of lactic acid and nitrogenous substances. In pathological states, sweat may contain glucose (sugar diabetes), bile pigments, cystine (cystinuria), and sometimes erythrocytes (bloody sweat).

sweat

[swet]
(chemistry)
Exudation of nitroglycerin from dynamite due to separation of nitroglycerin from its adsorbent.
(metallurgy)
Exudate of low-melting-point constituents from a metal on solidification.
(physiology)
The secretion of the sweat glands. Also known as perspiration.
(science and technology)
Formation of moisture beads on a surface as a result of concentration.

sweat

1. the secretion from the sweat glands, esp when profuse and visible, as during strenuous activity, from excessive heat, etc.; commonly also called perspiration
2. Chiefly US an exercise gallop given to a horse, esp on the day of a race
References in periodicals archive ?
Federer, seeking to become the fourth player to win at least three titles in Cincinnati in the Open era, hardly broke sweat as he put Djokovic to the sword in the opening set.
Summary: England barely broke sweat as they beat Slovakia 4-0 in a friendly at Wembley.
The Aintree winner was sent off the 8-13 favourite for his second start over fences and barely broke sweat as he made all under Sam Thomas to account for Straw Bear by 24 lengths.
He found Hoh Viss too strong for him on that occasion but never broke sweat when cheekily beating subsequent handicap winner Alphabetical over an extended two miles and one furlong at the same course in December.
1 Hewitt hardly broke sweat as he eased into the last 16 against unseeded Austrian Julian Knowle.
Lanarkshire I WAS irate listening to Chancellor George Osborne, who only ever broke sweat stacking towels in Selfridges, talk about hard-working families while implying that disabled people are scroungers.
And Dimitar Berbatov broke sweat, yes, but he did similar in a Spurs shirt five years ago.
REWILDING (M al Zarooni) HARDLY broke sweat when taking the Great Voltigeur Stakes at York on Tuesday (pictured) and Frankie Dettori was even able to ease the colt down in the closing stages.
Benozzo Gozzoli barely broke sweat when scoring at Nottingham last week and a 6lb penalty is unlikely to stop him going in again in the Vines BMW Handicap.
But it would hardly have needed washing on Sunday, as Hughes barely broke sweat holding up United's rather tame efforts.
Backed into 9-2 favouritism at Musselburgh, Freddie Tylicki's mount barely broke sweat when running out a seven-length winner.
The quiet confidence that emanated from the Welsh camp in the build-up was clearly misplaced as an experimental Springbok side hardly broke sweat in humbling the Grand Slam winners.