bromine


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bromine

(brō`mēn, –mĭn) [Gr.,=stench], volatile, liquid chemical element; symbol Br; at. no. 35; at. wt. 79.904; m.p. –7.2°C;; b.p. 58.78°C;; sp. gr. of liquid 3.12 at 20°C;; density of vapor 7.14 grams per liter at STPSTP
or standard temperature and pressure,
standard conditions for measurement of the properties of matter. The standard temperature is the freezing point of pure water, 0°C; or 273.15°K;.
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; valence −1, +1, +3, +5, or +7. At ordinary temperatures bromine is a brownish-red liquid that gives off a similarly colored vapor with an offensive, suffocating odor. It is a member of the halogenhalogen
[Gr.,=salt-bearing], any of the chemically active elements found in Group 17 of the periodic table; the name applies especially to fluorine (symbol F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I).
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 family in Group 17 of the periodic tableperiodic table,
chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. In the periodic table the elements are arranged in columns and rows according to increasing atomic number (see the table entitled
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. It is the only nonmetallic element that is liquid under ordinary conditions. It is soluble in water to some extent; the aqueous solution, called bromine water, acts as an oxidizing agent. It is also soluble in alcohol, ether, and carbon disulfide. Bromine is less active chemically than chlorinechlorine
[Gr.,=green], gaseous chemical element; symbol Cl; at. no. 17; interval in which at. wt. ranges 35.446–35.457; m.p. −100.98°C;; b.p. −34.6°C;; density 3.2 grams per liter at STP; valence −1, +1, +3, +5, +7.
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 or fluorinefluorine
, gaseous chemical element; symbol F; at. no. 9; at. wt. 18.9984; m.p. −219.6°C;; b.p. −188.14°C;; density 1.696 grams per liter at STP; valence −1. Fluorine is a yellowish, poisonous, highly corrosive gas.
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 but is more active than iodineiodine
[Gr.,=violet], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol I; at. no. 53; at. wt. 126.90447; m.p. 113.5°C;; b.p. 184.35°C;; sp. gr. 4.93 at 20°C;; valence −1, +1, +3, +5, or +7.
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. It forms compounds similar to those of the other halogens (see bromidebromide,
any of a group of compounds that contain bromine and a more electropositive element or radical. Bromides are formed by the reaction of bromine or a bromide with another substance; they are widely distributed in nature.
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). Oxides of bromine are unstable, but two acids, hypobromous acid, HBrO, and bromic acid, HBrO3, are known with their salts. Hydrobromic acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen bromide, HBr. Bromine does not occur uncombined in nature but is found in combination with other elements, notably sodium, potassium, magnesium, and silver. In compounds it is present in seawater, in mineral springs, and in common salt deposits, e.g., those at Stassfurt, Germany. It occurs in the United States, principally in Michigan, Ohio, and West Virginia. Bromine for commercial purposes is obtained by treating brines (from salt wells or seawater) with chlorine, which displaces the bromine. It is important in the preparation of organic compounds, such as ethylene dibromide, which is used in conjunction with an antiknock compound in gasoline. Bromine has a powerful corrosive action on the skin, destroying the tissue, and the vapor is strongly irritating to the eyes and the membranes of the nose and throat. The element was discovered in seawater by Antoine Jérôme Balard in 1826.

bromine

[′brō‚mēn]
(chemistry)
A chemical element, symbol Br, atomic number 35, atomic weight 79.904; used to make dibromide ethylene and in organic synthesis and plastics.

bromine

a pungent dark red volatile liquid element of the halogen series that occurs in natural brine and is used in the production of chemicals, esp ethylene dibromide. Symbol: Br; atomic no.: 35; atomic wt.: 79.904; valency: 1, 3, 5, or 7; relative density 3.12; density (gas): 7.59 kg/m3; melting pt.: --7.2°C; boiling pt.: 58.78°C
References in periodicals archive ?
The growing consumption of bromine in various industries such as pharmaceuticals, Pesticides and water treatment industry is poised to show an impressive growth for global bromine market during the forecast period 2015-2020.
Hudson's team found that Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies need bromine to live.
have been shown to be bromine deficient," McCall, an M.
The pipework at one end was disconnected, but the other end was still connected up - meaning bromine leaked in over the next five years.
This phase of the project doubles the site's bromine production capacity, it added.
It further demonstrates JBC's operational capabilities and the commitment of Arab Potash Company and Albemarle to JBC maintaining its position as a leader in the global bromine market," he stated.
Bromine is used in a wide variety of products, though its greatest use is as a flame retardant.
Since the 1990s, researchers have noted that the return of the sun during the Arctic spring appears to trigger increases in atmospheric concentrations of bromine oxide (BrO).
Adding bromine to petrol increased engine power and reliability.
The mill had already replaced its organic biocides with an oxidizing biocide, bromine.
Three different commercial formulations are sold as penta-, octa-, and deca-bromodiphenyl ether, with each mixture dominated by congeners (variations) with 5, 8, or 10 bromine atoms, respectively.