Aspergillosis

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aspergillosis

[‚as·pər·jil′ō·səs]
(medicine)
A rare fungus infection of humans and animals caused by several species of Aspergillus.

Aspergillosis

 

an infectious disease of man, birds, and more rarely other animals. The disease is caused by pathogenic microscopic fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. mich.). The main reservoir of the fungus is diseased animals.

In man aspergillosis affects the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs, most often the bronchi and lungs. In birds the disease may arise as a result of feeding upon the waste products of incubation, such as unfertilized eggs, and dead embryos infected with Aspergillus fungi. Factors predisposing to aspergillosis are inadequate feeding and keeping the poultry in crowded, unsanitary conditions. Among ducks and geese aspergillosis is observed in the spring, most often in May.

Aspergillosis is found everywhere and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. From 46 to 90 percent of the young birds may die. The spores of the fungi penetrate the respiratory tract and cause pathological changes in the area in which they ultimately become implanted and develop. The incubationary (hidden) period of the disease is from three to ten days. The main symptoms are lethargy; lack of motion; when inhaling, the diseased bird stretches out its neck and head forward and upward, opens its beak, and swallows air; frequent coughing; and a foaming liquid flow from the beak and nose. In cattle the symptoms are a dry cough, impairment of rumination, dyspnea, and rale. The diagnosis is established on the basis of a complex of clinical and other data. Preventive measures include favorable sanitary and hygienic living conditions, adequate nutrition, strict veterinary and sanitary control of feed, and timely disinfection.

Aspergillosis of bees is a fungus infection caused by the species A. flavus and A. niger. Bees infected with aspergillosis weaken and quickly die. The abdomen of a diseased bee feels hard when pressed. The dead bodies of bees, larvae, and pupae dry out into hard wrinkled lumps which become greenish-yellow or black in one or two days. Cool, damp weather aids the spread of aspergillosis of bees. The disease most often arises in hives located in shady, damp places. Preventive measures include placing hives in dry, sunlit places and timely disinfection. Combs with infected brood should be remade, the bees should be removed to dry, clean hives, and honey or sugar syrup containing 17 to 19 percent water should be added to their diet.

REFERENCES

Poltev, V. I. Bolezni pchel, 4th ed. Leningrad, 1964.
Spesivtseva, N. A. Mikozy i mikotoksikozy, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.
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25 * CPA, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis; ND, not detected; ABPA, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
Accuracy of CT in the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in asthmatic patients.
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Each of the features of the histologic triad of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis can occur in isolation in other settings.
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The spectrum of interaction of Aspergillus with a human host includes airway colonization, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, aspergilloma and the much dreaded invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
A much smaller number, less than one percent, suffer serious chronic allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (Institute of Medicine, 1993).
In some individuals, exposure to these fungi can also lead to asthma or to an illness known as "allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.