# buckling

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## buckling

[′bək·liŋ]
(engineering)
Wrinkling or warping of fibers in a composite material.
(mechanics)
Bending of a sheet, plate, or column supporting a compressive load.
(nucleonics)
The size-shape factor that appears in the general nuclear reactor equation and is a measure of the curvature of the neutron density distribution in the reactor.

## Buckling

in strength of materials, the bending of an originally straight column under the effect of centrally applied axial compressive forces that exceed the column’s bearing power. For a column of uniform cross section exhibiting elastic behavior, the various forms of buckling correspond to critical values of the compressive forces Nc = μ2n2EI/(μl)2, where E is the modulus of elasticity of the material of the column, I is the minimum value of the axial moment of inertia of the column’s cross section, l is the length of the column, μ is the coefficient of reduced length dependent on the conditions of end support of the column, and n is an integer. The minimum value for the critical force is usually of practical interest in that for a column with pinned ends (μ = 1), this force causes bending of the column according to a half-cycle sine curve (n = 1). The magnitude of the force is calculated by the Euler formula Nc = π2EI/l2. The stress σc = Nc/F(F is the cross-sectional area of the column) corresponds to the critical force and is called the critical stress. If the value of the critical stress exceeds the proportional limit of the column material, then buckling occurs in the zone of plastic deformations. In this case, the minimum critical force is determined by the formula Nc = π2n2TI/(μl)2, where T is the modulus, which characterizes the dependence between the deformations and the stresses beyond the limits of the elastic deformations.

In structural design, buckling is taken into account in calculating column loads.

L. V. KASAB’IAN

## buckling

The collapse of a slender vertical element which has been subjected to compression, leading to a sudden sideways deflection.

## buckling

Buckling failure of hollow shaft of ductile material.
A state of unstable equilibrium of a thinwalled body when compressive loads are applied on its walls. The resultant deformation may be elastic (i.e., the body regains its shape once compressive loads are removed) or permanent. In some cases, it may even lead to collapse of the structure. The most visible forms of buckling are wrinkles or kinks on the surface of a sheet metal aircraft structure.
References in classic literature ?
No matter how high a statesman may stand, he is certain to have some household drudge, before whom he is weak, undecided, disputations with fate, self- questioning, self-answering, and buckling for the fight.
This reply was made while Gurth was buckling on the, Knight's heels a pair of large gilded spurs, capable of convincing any restive horse that his best safety lay in being conformable to the will of his rider.
This was seeing the world in real truth; this was life as he would have it - bustling and shouting, the buckling of belts, and beating of bullocks and creaking of wheels, lighting of fires and cooking of food, and new sights at every turn of the approving eye.
Then, buckling his belt more tightly around his waist, he ran fleetly down the road toward the eastward and Sherwood.
It seemed for a time that the Hohenzollern must needs break her back upon the Parting of the Waters, and then for a time her propeller flopped and frothed in the river and thrust the mass of buckling, crumpled wreckage towards the American shore.

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