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The bulliform cells in the leaves mid-region were had reduced diameters and showed evidence of cell collapse.
Close to the midrib in the mid-region of the leaf and facing the adaxial surface, bulliform cells formed groups of approximately five cells with silicon deposits close to the cell walls (Figure 3).
In the leaves cross sections of plants from treatments without calcium silicate silicon deposits were not observed in the bulliform cells, in the chlorenchyma or in the anticlinal walls of the epidermis and hypodermis.
4 mm, subulate, dark brown to blackish, bulliform basally, sparse to medium-dense, marginally entire; phyllopodia 2-7 mm long; blade 15-29 x 1.
induced by water loss from specialized bulliform cells of the leaf upper
An additional source of evidence that suggests a shift from immature to mature harvesting during the Majiabang period comes from bulliform phytoliths.
Those produced by leaves include one type of bulliform cell, characterized by widely flared and multiple-ridged bases, which was originally studied by Japanese scholars (Fujiwara 1993), and one type of long epidermal cell, characterized by pointed projections and a large prominent lump.
In addition, some diagnostic phytoliths for the grass family, namely, short cells and bulliform types, were also counted.
Within this series, the African and southeast Asian rices can be distinguished, by glume short hair morphology, leaf bulliform shape, and bilobate size and diversity.