2007), reporting the variation of proportions of chlorophyll parenchyma and the volume of bulliform
Upon exposure to low temperatures, mesophyll cells in the phyllode of Acacia melanoxylon shrank and the intercellular spaces increased with decreasing temperature, due to apparent freezing of the bulliform
cells (Ruan et al.
The rice leaf rolls when the specialized bulliform
cells of the upper epidermis experience water loss , causing them to lose their turgor .
1999): a) epidermis, except trichomes and bulliform
cells; b) lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma (LVT+S), including xylem, fiber, sclerenchymatic sheath and other cells with lignified wall cell that had present in vascular bundles; c) non-lignified vascular tissue (NLVT), including phloem and other cells in the bundles that presented cellulosic cell wall; d) parenchyma, including bulliform
cells and bundle vascular parenchymatic sheath.
Plasticity can be expressed by morphological, physiological, or biochemical changes, and can affect structural characteristics as well as the proportions of different plant tissues (notably in leaves), including: mesophyll and cell wall thicknesses, number of vascular bundles and bulliform
cells, distance between vascular bundles, thickness of abaxial and adaxial epidermal surfaces, and stomatal density.
cells in the leaves mid-region were had reduced diameters and showed evidence of cell collapse.
cells lose water rapidly during periods of stress and cause the leaf to curve upward, eventually rolling up as the wilting process progresses and thus helps the plant to conserve water.
induced by water loss from specialized bulliform
cells of the leaf upper
Juvenile leaves lack bulliform
cells and trichomes, have a thin cuticle, and are covered with epicuticular wax.
Epidermal cells are visually about the same size (Figures 2E, G, J), but may be larger on the adaxial side (Figures 2F, H, M)--excluding the bulliform
The distribution pattern of bulliform
cells proved to be helpful in the differentiation among Cenchrus species.
Grasses have modified upper epidermal cells, bulliform
cells, which are enlarged for water storage.