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bull

[Lat. bulla=leaden seal], papal letter. As the diplomatic organization of the papal chancery progressed in the Middle Ages, the papal bull came to be more solemn than the papal brief or encyclicalencyclical,
originally, a pastoral letter sent out by a bishop, now a solemn papal letter, meant to inform the whole church on some particular matter of importance. Benedict XIV circulated the first known encyclical in 1740.
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. The letter, traditionally sealed with lead, but in special circumstances with silver or gold, begins with the name of the pope and his title as servus servorum Dei [servant of the servants of God]. Today only the consistorial bull, the most solemn of all papal pronouncements, carries the leaden seal; all other bulls and lesser documents have a red ink seal. The titles of bulls are the first few words of its Latin text. Famous bulls include Clericis laicos (1296) and Unam sanctam (1302) issued by Boniface VIII in his struggle with Philip IV of France; the Bull of Demarcation (1493) by Alexander VI; Exsurge Domine (1520) by Leo X against Martin Luther; Unigenitus (1713) by Clement XI, against Jansenism; Dominus ac Redemptor (1773) by Clement XIV, suppressing the Jesuits; Quanta cura (1864) by Pius IX, introducing the Syllabus errorum; Pastor aeternus (1871) by Pius IX, on papal infallibility; and Munificentissimus Deus (1950) by Pius XII, defining the dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. Pope John XXIII issued a consistorial bull, Humanae Salutis, in 1961 to convoke the 21st ecumenical council. The papal bull is used to proclaim the canonization of a saint. A bullarium is a collection of papal bulls; the most famous published bullaria are the Roman Bullarium (1733–62) and the Turin Bullarium (1857–85).

bull:

see cattlecattle,
name for the ruminant mammals of the genus Bos, and particularly those of the domesticated species, Bos taurus and B. indica. The term oxen, broadly used, refers also to closely related animals, such as the buffalo and the bison.
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.

Bull

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

The Bull is a popular name for the sign Taurus.

Bull

 

the male of cattle; the sire. Bulls are taller than cows and have more massive torsos. The forepart of the torso is better developed than the rear, and the head is more coarse, the neck thicker, the chest wider and deeper, and the shoulders more rounded than are the corresponding parts of cows.

The liveweight of bulls of dairy breeds is 750-850 kg and of meat breeds, 700-800 kg. Sexual maturity is reached at six to eight months of age. Bulls of fast-maturing breeds are allowed to mate (depending on the conditions of growth) at 14 to 16 months, and those of slow-maturing breeds, at 16 to 18 months. The best bulls are selected for breeding. The factors taken into account are breed, lineage, conformation, constitution, state of health, expression of sex, sexual activity, and quality of the offspring. Bulls can be used for breeding for six to eight years, though some preserve their potency for 12 to 14 years. In free mating one bull can service 50 to 70 cows; in directed mating, 150 to 200 cows; and with artificial insemination, the sperm of one bull can inseminate 1, 000 to 3, 000 cows. With the sperm of the best bulls, at least 5, 000 cows can be serviced. Bulls which give poor-quality sperm are not allowed to mate. The role of the sire in completing a herd is great; therefore, sire bulls are given the best feeding and living conditions. A bull’s ration must completely fulfill his requirements for protein, minerals, and vitamins. Bulls are given daily per 100 kg: 1-1.5 kg of hay, 1-1.5 kg of root crops, and 0.8 to 1 kg of silage. In addition, 2-5 kg of a mixture of concentrates per head are given daily. During heightened work periods, food of animal origin and vitamins are added. In summer bulls are kept in pastures (in camps), and in the winter they are kept in cow barns in special stalls. They must be allowed out (two to three hours a day) or used for light work. Those animals unfit for breed work are castrated, fattened for meat, or used as draft animals.

REFERENCES

Vsiakikh, A. S. Vyrashchivanie i ispol’zovanie plemennykh bykov. Moscow, 1948.
Fandeev, B. V. Krupnyi rogatyi skot, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1963.
Gerchikov, N. P. Skotovodstvo, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.
Rekomendatsii po kormleniiu i soderzhaniiu plemennykh proizvoditelei. Moscow, 1966.

B. V. FANDEEV

What does it mean when you dream about a bull?

The bull is a rich dream symbol. Perhaps the dreamer is being too bullheaded about some issue and needs to seek compromise. The bull can also symbolize a large, powerful, and somewhat clumsy person (“a bull in a china shop”), as well as a person optimistic (bullish) about the future course of events, as in business.

Bull

[bəl]
(astronomy)

bull

heraldic symbol of courage. [Heraldry: Halberts, 21]
See: Bravery

bull

symbolizes cruelty in Picasso’s Guernica. [Span. Art.: Mercatante, 99]
See: Cruelty

bull

heraldic symbol of magnanimity. [Heraldry: Halberts, 21]

Bull

Apis
bull of Memphis, created in Osiris’ image. [Egypt. Myth.: Benét, 41]
Buchis
black bull worshiped as chief city god. [Egypt. Rel.: Parrinder, 52]
Cretan bull
sacred to Poseidon; sent to Minos. [Gk. Myth.: Kravitz, 68]
Ferdinand
daydreaming bull who refuses to fight in ring. [Children’s Lit.: The Story of Ferdinand]
Minotaur
fabulous monster of Crete, half-bull, half-man. [Gk. Myth.: EB, VI: 922]
Taurus
constellation of the zodiac symbolized by the bull. [Astrology: EB, IX: 844]

bull

1
1. any male bovine animal, esp one that is sexually mature
2. the uncastrated adult male of any breed of domestic cattle
3. the male of various other animals including the elephant and whale
4. Chiefly Brit short for bull's-eye
5. short for bulldog bull terrier
6. male; masculine

bull

2
a formal document issued by the pope, written in antiquated characters and often sealed with a leaden bulla

Bull

John. 1563--1628, English composer and organist

Bull

Bull

(Bull Worldwide Information Systems, Billerica, MA, Group Bull, Paris, France, www.bull.com) A computer and information services company with offices in more than 100 countries. A leading advocate of open source software, Bull offers Intel-based servers running the GCOS operating system and PowerPC-based servers running AIX. One of its business units provides a complete line of networked storage products, while its Trustway appliance products are known for their open source security options for VPNs.

Bull was founded in France in 1933 and named after Norwegian engineer Fredrik Rosing Bull. Bull had created a revolutionary adding-sorting punch card machine in 1921, and his patents were purchased by the company. In the 1960s, Bull partnered with GE in computer development in France. When Honeywell took over GE's computer business in 1970, its French division became Honeywell Bull. In 1987, Honeywell turned all its computer business over to Bull. For a while, both Honeywell and NEC had ownership in the company, which was named Bull HN. Today, all operations, with particular focus in the manufacturing, banking, finance, and telecom sectors, are under the Bull name. See Honeywell.

Bull

(dreams)
Depending on the details of the dream, this dream symbol could have several different meanings. The bull in your dream could represent powerful sexual energy, stubbornness, strength, and, at times, clumsiness. It could also symbolize optimism about the future and an ability to focus on a specific goal. Bulls can represent tenacity and a very strong will. Finally, since the bull is associated with the color red, some believe that it symbolizes the first chakra, which is the energy center located at the base of the spine and represents this material world.
References in periodicals archive ?
We're committed to providing customers with the latest brands and aspirational retailers and with these we hope shoppers will have an even better retail experience when visiting Bullring.
Bullring general manager Tim Walley said: "Our previous campaign, We Are So City, was a roaring success, which produced excellent results for the centre, so we wanted to build on this.
I was walking towards the Bullring doors near the bull, when two of them ran through the double doors and were blocking my entrance.
This transaction provides CPPIB with further scale and opportunity in Bullring and is in line with our U.
Following the incident, Selfridges tweeted: "We are deeply saddened by the incident which took place at the Bullring today.
2000 review: It was the first visit to The Bullring for the Southwest Series.
Some interesting facts of the new Bullring are that it contains a quarter of the steel that is in the Empire State Building (15,500 tonnes) and the concrete used in its construction is enough to stretch between Birmingham and Oban, in Scotland, ten times over.
The rest of the city has benefited as a result, from hotels and restaurants to other shops outside of Bullring.
Every time I get near these balconies in the Bullring shopping centre I shudder with vertigo," he said.
The figure is equivalent to every Birmingham resident visiting Bullring at least once, and half making a return trip in launch week.
The transformation of the Las Arenas bullring will signal the end of bullfighting in the ring beside the city's Plaza de Espana, and will be the first building of importance to welcome visitors to Barcelona as they enter the city on the Gran Via from the airport.
Maggie Foggett, marketing manager at the Bullring, said: "We're extremely excited to announce the expansion of one of our key stores here at Bullring - Topshop.