bursitis(redirected from bursal synovitis)
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bursitis(bərsī`təs), acute or chronic inflammation of a bursabursa
, closed fibrous sac lined with a smooth membrane, producing a viscous lubricant known as synovial fluid. Bursas are found in regions where muscles or tendons rub against other muscles, tendons, or bones.
..... Click the link for more information. , or fluid sac, located close to a joint. In response to irritation or injury the bursa may become inflamed, causing pain, restricting motion, and producing more fluid than can be absorbed readily. An attack of bursitis usually causes great pain and tenderness in the affected area. Common areas of involvement include the shoulder and big toe (see bunionbunion,
swelling or thickening around the first joint of the big toe. The toe is forced inward and compresses the other toes. The fluid-filled sac, or bursa, in the toe joint becomes inflamed (a condition called bursitis), which may lead to pain, deformity, and an inability to
..... Click the link for more information. ). Depending on the cause and the degree of involvement, bursitis is treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugsnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug,
a drug that suppresses inflammation in a manner similar to steroids, but without the side effects of steroids; commonly referred to by the acronym NSAID .
..... Click the link for more information. (NSAIDs), antibioticsantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
..... Click the link for more information. , corticosteroids, and immobility until the pain subsides. Superficial bursas, not necessary to the function of a joint, or bursas that have become calcified, may be excised.
inflammation of the mucous sacs, predominantly in the region of the joints. In man the causes of bursitis are traumas, frequent and repeated mechanical irritations, infections, and diathesis. In acute bursitis swelling, edema, and pain are noted at the site of the mucous sac; within the sac there is a serous or purulent exudate, and more rarely (in traumatic bursitis), blood. Chronic bursites are frequently associated with occupation (bursitis of the knee joint in floor polishers, of the elbow in miners, and so on); they are manifested by thickening of the walls of the sac, a large accumulation of fluid in it, and so forth. Treatment includes resting the joint, thermal procedures, ultra-high frequency current, and, in a number of cases, surgery. While doing work associated with constant traumatization of the joint, it is necessary to wear a protective binding.
Bursitis of animals. The animals predominantly affected by bursitis are horses and cattle. Causes of the disease include prolonged mechanical irritation (lying on a hard floor, a poorly adjusted harness, and so on), traumatic injuries, certain infections and infestations (brucellosis, onchocerciasis, and other specific bursites). A painful swelling forms in the region of inflammation; in purulent bursitis the body temperature is elevated; in bursitis of the extremities there is limping. In the first days of the disease (nonpurulent bursitis) treatment consists of icepacks and tight bindings, then hot compresses and resolvent ointments. Prophylaxis is directed toward observance of hygienic rules of housing and maintaining animals.
REFERENCESChastnaia khirurgiia domashnikh zhivotnykh, 3rd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1963.
Kanonov, G. A. “Bursity.” In Veterinarnaia Entsiklopediia, vol. 1. Moscow, 1968.