Other calcareous algae
are an hitherto undescribed, hand-mirror- or key-shaped species of Apidium (henceforth Apidium sp.
In this study, nineteen genera and twelve species of benthic foraminifera, one genus of planktic foraminifera, three genera and four species of calcareous algae
and Lingulogavelinella arnagerensis assemblage zone were identified.
bryozoans, tube worms) but also forming dense canopies sheltering understory calcareous algae
Treatments involved the addition of a calcium source to the concentrate, either limestone (LI) (calcitic limestone, Iguatama, Brazil) or a product derived from calcareous algae
(CA) (Top buffer[R] Sanphar, Campinas, Brazil), with or without the presence of monensin (MO) (Bovensin[R] Phibro, Guarulhos, Brazil).
The functional groups were determined following Steneck & Dethier (1994): a) foliose algae, b) filamentous algae, c) corticated foliose algae, d) corticated algae, e) articulated calcareous algae
, and d) crustose algae.
Forms of green algae mainly calcified are recognized as skeletal calcareous algae
Coronado and Rodriguez (2009) recognized syringoporoid corals in the algal-mounds of Cosgaya Formation in Cantabria (Spain) where they occur associated with calcareous algae
, chaetetids and rugose corals.
Among bigger algal species, tough cement makers called crustose calcareous algae
help hold a reef together and create ridges that withstand pounding waves.
Plate 2: Calcareous algae
of the Kuh-e-Surmeh section.
The important fossils groups are found in SML are foraminifera (large, small benthic foraminifera), calcareous algae
, benthic sessile organisms (corals, bryozoans), and shell-bearing organisms with valves (brachiopods, mollusks and multi-plate shells (echinoderms).
In Brazil, most of the reefs present tiny calcareous formations that grow on sandstone rocks whose main bioconstructors are encrusting calcareous algae
, vermetid molluscs and few corals (Maida and Ferreira, 1997; Castro and Pires, 2001).
Paleontologists eventually settled on the two most likely relatives--sponges (which are often, but not universally, considered animals) and calcareous algae
(organisms simpler than true higher plants).