The whirring

calculating machine to which the cinema Turing devotes himself without human stint, and which is designed to analyze "159 million million million" letter equivalences and decoy combinations, is touchingly named "Christopher," in covert honor of Turing's one friend, his schoolboy crush, who once gave him a book on secret codes.

FEAST OF STEPHEN 1791: Charles Babbage, English inventor of a

calculating machine, was born.

Babbage illustrated his case by comparing the universe to a great

calculating machine.

However, ecologists must remember that the cumbersome, electric

calculating machine had not yet been invented.

Colossus was the first programmable, electronic, digital

calculating machine, and has a claim to being the first modern computer.

Charles Babbage built the first computer, a steam-driven

calculating machine, in the 1800s.

In the late 1880s, however, this changed with the introduction of the "comptometer," "a multiple-order key-driven

calculating machine," developed by Dorr Eugene Felt [Turck, 1921, p.

Should Becher have been able to use a computer or a

calculating machine, no one would doubt to qualify his invention like the first attempt to develop an automated translation system.

A mathematician, she wrote the instruction sets for Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine, a

calculating machine.

Napier invented a primitive form of a

calculating machine which is now called Napier's Bones.

Made out of wood, Fowler's

calculating machine used a matrix of spindly arms moving across notched tabs to multiply or divide numbers in base-three notation.

The world famous calculator company has produced another totally mind blowing, world-altering

calculating machine in the XFER.