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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

References in periodicals archive ?
Because previous studies have reported or suggested an association between blood lead and the following dietary component intakes per day, these components were selected for analysis: total caloric intake, total fat intake, protein, carbohydrates, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, animal fat, vegetable fat, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin D, and vitamin C.
When caloric intake is greater than caloric output, it produces a caloric profit and weight gain.
Caloric restriction counteracts this by increasing the production of another enzyme, Srx1, which repairs Prx1.
ISLAMABAD -- Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are primarily responsible for higher caloric intakes among children than those who do not, a news study has revealed.
For the obese patient, it is important that protein requirements are met while caloric intake is kept in check.
But researchers behind the new study argued that hormonal signals are the middlemen between an empty gut and the perception of hunger in the brain, and that manipulating them may effectively counter age-related cognitive decline in the same way as caloric restriction.
ISLAMABAD, June 13, 2011 (Balochistan Times): The target for average caloric availability during 2011-12 has been set at 2,450 calories per capita per day to meet the nutritional requirements of the population by adopting Economic Growth Framework measures.
However, he suggests that in the future, researchers might develop drugs that mimic caloric restriction's beneficial effects.
Moderate-intensity exercise coupled with caloric restriction was better than exercise alone for reducing waist circumference in women in a recent study.
The alternate binaural bithermal caloric test showed no significant reduced vestibular response and a directional preponderance (DP) of 23% left.
Interval training and easy long runs will deplete glycogen similarly, but these workouts use substantially different caloric amounts.