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Obsolete a hypothetical elastic fluid formerly postulated as the embodiment of heat



a hypothetical substance (weightless fluid) representing heat by whose presence in bodies scientists of the 18th and early 19th centuries attempted to explain observed heat phenomena, such as the heating of bodies, heat exchange, thermal expansion, and thermal equilibrium. The caloric theory required that certain unusual properties be ascribed to this fluid, for example, weightlessness, an elasticity greater than that of all other substances, and an ability to penetrate and expand the tiniest pores of bodies. In the 18th century, scientists hypothesized the existence of weightless fluids besides caloric, among them phlogiston, to explain the physical and chemical properties of substances. Only at the beginning of the 19th century was it conclusively proven that heat phenomena are caused by the chaotic movement of atoms and molecules. An important role in refuting the caloric theory was played by the experiments of B. Rumford (1798) and H. Davy (1799) that proved that the heating of bodies can be brought about by mechanical work.

References in periodicals archive ?
The v-HIT tests the VOR that is at higher frequencies in comparison to the caloric test.
The aim of this study was to compare o-VEMP and v-HIT test results with the caloric test results in peripheral vestibular diseases and to create a sequence algorithm for the test batteries to be used.
The patients were placed in the supine position with the head in 30-degree flexion, and the binaural bithermal air caloric test was performed.
The caloric test, v-HIT test, and o-VEMP test results of a patient with Meniere's disease are shown in Figure 2.
The probability of hearing preservation in patients with normal VEMP and abnormal caloric tests was larger compared with abnormal VEMP and normal caloric test.
In the patients with no VEMP and a normal caloric test or with areflexia caloric testing and a normal VEMP, prediction of the VS nerve of origin was definite.
Is the nerve origin of the vestibular schwannoma correlated with vestibular evoked myogenic potential, caloric test, and auditory brainstem response?
Caloric tests are used to estimate the function of the SVN, which innervates the horizontal semicircular canal and is responsible for the caloric response.
8%) of semi-spontaneous nystagmus in different directions of the gaze, 3 cases of spontaneous nystagmus that did not influence the torsion swing and caloric tests, 2 cases (1.
The alternate bithermal caloric tests were not corrected for the preexisting nystagmus.