calpain

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Related to Calpains: Cathepsins

calpain

[′kal‚pān]
(cell and molecular biology)
A calcium-dependent cysteine protease in the cytoplasm that is central to most processes in cell biology (plasma membrane-associated signaling events; cell proliferation, differentiation, activation, and communication; and programmed cell death). Its overactivation has been observed in muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer's disease, AIDS, cataract formation, multiple sclerosis, and arthritis.
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43] AEP can cleave endogenous tau at Asn255 and Asn368 independently of caspases and calpains, generating neurotoxic fragments that form insoluble fibrils in vitro .
Regionally distinct patterns of calpain activation and traumatic axonal injury following contusive brain injury in immature rats.
Changes in calpain activity, muscle structure, and function after eccentric exercise," Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol.
In agreement with Shackelford, Morgan, Cross and Savell (1991), several studies demonstrate the influence of pH on the activity of cathepsins and calpains, which are proteolytic enzymes, suggesting that the observed differences in pH may be partially responsible for the differences in tenderness.
Properties of myofibril-bound calpain activity in longissimus muscle of callipyge and normal sheep.
Calpain Activity Zymography from Meat Sources as Quality Criterion
15) In addition, the calcium-activated protease calpain inactivates certain but not all forms of the NCX of the neuron, contributing to the failure to maintain baseline Ca2 + concentrations.
This strategy may be extended to the targeting of other downstream pathological processes, such as inflammation, (119) tauopathy (120) and calpain activation (121-124) to achieve maximum effects.
Calpains cause calpainmediated cleavage of the [Na.
As such, finding and exploiting calpain inhibitors is an important area of research.
Dual vulnerability of tau to calpains and caspase-3 proteolysis under neurotoxic and neurodegenerative conditions.
Calpains are essential for initiation and promotion of cell death, and treatment with calpain inhibitors are known to prevent the hearing loss induced by aminoglycoside ototoxicity [45].