Calque

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Related to calqued: loan translations

loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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Calque

 

(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.

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And cowboy, which was calqued after Spanish vaquero ('a man who herds cows'), later extended its meaning ('an man who herds and tends cattle, esp.
The former is an idiom (perhaps calqued on French jusqu'au point de) whose lexical entry stipulates its use as an adjunct.
26) A possible exception is the present tense beon : wesan distinction which may perhaps have been calqued on the distinction between the copula and the verbum substantivum in Brittonic as well as in the other Celtic languages.
The new statutes accorded prose a higher priority than poetry, particularly condemning occasional verse (especially epithalamia in honour of 'Hinz und Kunz', which would now be banned), hence now the change of name from 'Teutschubende Poetische Gesellschaft' to 'Deutsche Gesellschaft', a name deliberately calqued on 'Academie Francaise'.
However, the passage of time and the accumulation of experience have enabled the editors both to take advantage of the publication of new editions of five base texts and to devise a new system for treating verbs the component elements for which are calqued on Latin.
Such aspects of periodic speech the Roman grammarians commonly treated under the heading of compositio, arrangement, a term calqued from the Greek synthesis.
Although phrasal verbs similar to these are attested in Classical Mandaic, most Neo-Mandaic phrasal verbs are calqued upon Persian phrasal verbs, and many of the nonverbal elements are Persian or Arabic loan words.
These cases can be explained as archaisms: at least nine are attested since medieval times and several can be shown to be calqued on Latin head-final patterns (cabrahigo < L.
If the OED is not very helpful for tracing the history of the phrase 'native speaker', (6) bilingual dictionaries are obviously useless for this purpose, apart from confirming the peculiarity of the English designation by either offering translations which are clearly calqued on English (such as the French locuteur natif, the Spanish hablante nativo, the Italian parlante nativo), or have recourse to different expressions involving the mother tongue (see the German Muttersprachler(in), or the Italian il/la madrelingua for persons who speak or teach their mother tongue).
Their iconography is calqued upon that of the dvarapalas and, like the latter category of deities, they have been sculpted at the angles, the joints, of the temples.
A more specialized and recent association has been that of one who speculates for a fall in share prices, the English bear is calqued in German, but not in the Romance languages.
But it is also worth noting that this linguistic Japan-bashing has not penetrated into Korean university circles, where the bulk of the grammatical terminology continues to be borrowed directly from the Japanese description of Japanese (which in turn was mostly calqued upon English, further to complicate the matter).