Calque

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Calque

 

(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.

V. V. RASKIN

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Occasionally, the right-headed pattern is calqued, and in this case one does find a few examples where the non-head element contains its WCM: libro-forums 'book forums', gitano-soul 'gypsy soul' (Rainer 1993).
The three translations proceed quite differently: 2 (the earliest: thirteenth-century) is the most adventurous; 4 (from two fifteenth-century manuscripts, but the text itself is probably earlier) is literal to the point of producing calqued syntax; 5 (fourteenth-/fifteenth-century) abbreviates severely (especially, and interestingly, when confronted by theologically complex or tendentious passages) and constitutes more an adaptation than a translation.
Their iconography is calqued upon that of the dvarapalas and, like the latter category of deities, they have been sculpted at the angles, the joints, of the temples.
But it is also worth noting that this linguistic Japan-bashing has not penetrated into Korean university circles, where the bulk of the grammatical terminology continues to be borrowed directly from the Japanese description of Japanese (which in turn was mostly calqued upon English, further to complicate the matter).
In the Turkic, Mongolian, Tungusic, northeast and northwest Caucasian, and Uralic languages of the former Soviet Union, Comrie notes that subordinating conjunctions have been calqued on the model of Russian as with Adyge (nw Caucasian) s'da p'ome `because' (Comrie 1981: 34).
However, in neither case, nor with all you, does the choice of English etyma with which these forms are constructed appear to be calqued on languages spoken by the non-European population.