And cowboy, which was calqued
after Spanish vaquero ('a man who herds cows'), later extended its meaning ('an man who herds and tends cattle, esp.
The former is an idiom (perhaps calqued
on French jusqu'au point de) whose lexical entry stipulates its use as an adjunct.
26) A possible exception is the present tense beon : wesan distinction which may perhaps have been calqued
on the distinction between the copula and the verbum substantivum in Brittonic as well as in the other Celtic languages.
The new statutes accorded prose a higher priority than poetry, particularly condemning occasional verse (especially epithalamia in honour of 'Hinz und Kunz', which would now be banned), hence now the change of name from 'Teutschubende Poetische Gesellschaft' to 'Deutsche Gesellschaft', a name deliberately calqued
on 'Academie Francaise'.
However, the passage of time and the accumulation of experience have enabled the editors both to take advantage of the publication of new editions of five base texts and to devise a new system for treating verbs the component elements for which are calqued
Such aspects of periodic speech the Roman grammarians commonly treated under the heading of compositio, arrangement, a term calqued
from the Greek synthesis.
Although phrasal verbs similar to these are attested in Classical Mandaic, most Neo-Mandaic phrasal verbs are calqued
upon Persian phrasal verbs, and many of the nonverbal elements are Persian or Arabic loan words.
These cases can be explained as archaisms: at least nine are attested since medieval times and several can be shown to be calqued
on Latin head-final patterns (cabrahigo < L.
If the OED is not very helpful for tracing the history of the phrase 'native speaker', (6) bilingual dictionaries are obviously useless for this purpose, apart from confirming the peculiarity of the English designation by either offering translations which are clearly calqued
on English (such as the French locuteur natif, the Spanish hablante nativo, the Italian parlante nativo), or have recourse to different expressions involving the mother tongue (see the German Muttersprachler(in), or the Italian il/la madrelingua for persons who speak or teach their mother tongue).
Their iconography is calqued
upon that of the dvarapalas and, like the latter category of deities, they have been sculpted at the angles, the joints, of the temples.
A more specialized and recent association has been that of one who speculates for a fall in share prices, the English bear is calqued
in German, but not in the Romance languages.
But it is also worth noting that this linguistic Japan-bashing has not penetrated into Korean university circles, where the bulk of the grammatical terminology continues to be borrowed directly from the Japanese description of Japanese (which in turn was mostly calqued
upon English, further to complicate the matter).