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process of hermetically sealing cooked food for future use. It is a preservation method, in which prepared food is put in glass jars or metal cans that are hermetically sealed to keep out air and then heated to a specific temperature for a specified time to destroy disease-causing microorganisms and prevent spoilage. Low-acid foods, such as meats, are heated to 240°–265°F; (116°–129°C;), while acidic foods, such as fruits, are heated to about 212°F; (100°C;). Canning was invented in 1809 by Nicholas AppertAppert, Nicolas
, also known as François Appert
, 1750–1841, French originator of a method of canning. In 1795 the French government offered a prize of 12,000 francs for a method of preserving food, especially for use by the army and navy.
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. The process proved moderately successful and was gradually put into practice in other European countries and in the United States. Glass containers were used at first, but they proved bulky, costly, and brittle. Early canmaking was slow and expensive; sheets of tin were cut with shears, bent around a block, and the seams heavily soldered. A good tinsmith could make only about 60 cans a day. The industry began to assume importance with the invention in 1847 of the stamped can. Because of the food requirements of soldiers during the U.S. Civil War, considerable amounts of canned meats and vegetables were produced. Salmon from the Columbia River was canned in 1866 and salmon from Alaska in 1872. A machine for shaping and soldering was exhibited in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. The open-top can of the 20th cent., with a soldered lock seam and double-seamed ends, permits easy cleaning and filling. Cans used for foods that react with metals, causing discoloration (usually harmless), may be coated with a lacquer film. Highly specialized machinery, knowledge of bacteriology and food chemistry, as well as more efficient processes of cooking, have combined to make the commercial canning of food an important feature of modern life. The range of products canned has increased enormously and includes meat and poultry; fruits and vegetables; seafood; milk; and preserves, jams, jellies, pickles, and sauces. The general principles of commercial and home canning are the same, but the factory more accurately controls procedures and has highly specialized machinery. The Mason jar, popular in home canning, was patented in 1858. Home canning grew in popularity during World War II, when the harvest of "victory gardens" was canned. Canning leads to a loss of nutrient value in foods, particularly of the water-soluble vitamins. The home-canning methods recommended today are much more specific than the old-fashioned methods, which are no longer considered safe.


See A. C. Hersom and E. D. Hulland, Canned Foods (1981); C. Walker, The Complete Book of Canning (1982).


(food engineering)
Packing and preserving of food in cans or jars subjected to sterilizing temperatures.
Placing a jacket around a slug of uranium before inserting the slug in a nuclear reactor.


1. Charles John, 1st Earl Canning. 1812--62, British statesman; governor general of India (1856--58) and first viceroy (1858--62)
2. his father, George. 1770--1827, British Tory statesman; foreign secretary (1822--27) and prime minister (1827)
References in periodicals archive ?
Aside from the contentious BPA issue, whether the contents of canned goods are nutritionally valuable for us anyway is an open question.
We will not accept expired (out of date) canned goods, damaged or open canned goods.
There are multiple studies that have found that canned fruits and vegetables are nutritionally equivalent to fresh and frozen varieties, so there's an undeniable positive role that canned goods can play in the dietary needs of consumers.
Our shelves were almost depleted, and here comes these two boys with hundreds of boxes of donated canned goods to restock our shelves," says Skip Wrightson, outreach coordinator at Guadalupe Center, which has fed the hungry in the Valley for more than 60 years.
This is just as true about canned goods on a supermarket shelf as it about unwrapped fruit or vegetables at an open-air market anywhere in the world.
The armed dwellers in the Emboriki [a department store], the blacks surrounding them, the hiss from a turned tap that has finally stopped trickling, the time it takes a group who go out to come back with bags of canned goods, packaged noodles, beans, rice, spaghetti--each is an emblem of inalienable, coming shock.
It's also the largest poultry and pork producer in Ecuador and a major producer office and seeds, as well as other canned goods.
Initially they look like small arrays of scaffolding or platforms overrun by various materials including, in the case of the three examples at Frac PACA, walkers, canned goods, a battery, faucets, and even a hairdresser's chair.
The annual charity competition draws teams from architectural and engineering firms to construct sculptures using unopened canned goods which are later donated to The Food Bank For New York City.
County residents can set out canned goods by their mailbox for pickup by letter carriers today, part of the U.
What: Wish more than 10 different vendors--all local farmers and crafts people--the market offers lots of locally grown produce, free-range eggs, several kinds of goat cheese, our own mountain honey and molasses, canned goods, homebaked goods and fresh bread.
No other Morrisons soups or canned goods are affected by the recall.