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process of hermetically sealing cooked food for future use. It is a preservation method, in which prepared food is put in glass jars or metal cans that are hermetically sealed to keep out air and then heated to a specific temperature for a specified time to destroy disease-causing microorganisms and prevent spoilage. Low-acid foods, such as meats, are heated to 240°–265°F; (116°–129°C;), while acidic foods, such as fruits, are heated to about 212°F; (100°C;). Canning was invented in 1809 by Nicholas AppertAppert, Nicolas
, also known as François Appert
, 1750–1841, French originator of a method of canning. In 1795 the French government offered a prize of 12,000 francs for a method of preserving food, especially for use by the army and navy.
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. The process proved moderately successful and was gradually put into practice in other European countries and in the United States. Glass containers were used at first, but they proved bulky, costly, and brittle. Early canmaking was slow and expensive; sheets of tin were cut with shears, bent around a block, and the seams heavily soldered. A good tinsmith could make only about 60 cans a day. The industry began to assume importance with the invention in 1847 of the stamped can. Because of the food requirements of soldiers during the U.S. Civil War, considerable amounts of canned meats and vegetables were produced. Salmon from the Columbia River was canned in 1866 and salmon from Alaska in 1872. A machine for shaping and soldering was exhibited in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. The open-top can of the 20th cent., with a soldered lock seam and double-seamed ends, permits easy cleaning and filling. Cans used for foods that react with metals, causing discoloration (usually harmless), may be coated with a lacquer film. Highly specialized machinery, knowledge of bacteriology and food chemistry, as well as more efficient processes of cooking, have combined to make the commercial canning of food an important feature of modern life. The range of products canned has increased enormously and includes meat and poultry; fruits and vegetables; seafood; milk; and preserves, jams, jellies, pickles, and sauces. The general principles of commercial and home canning are the same, but the factory more accurately controls procedures and has highly specialized machinery. The Mason jar, popular in home canning, was patented in 1858. Home canning grew in popularity during World War II, when the harvest of "victory gardens" was canned. Canning leads to a loss of nutrient value in foods, particularly of the water-soluble vitamins. The home-canning methods recommended today are much more specific than the old-fashioned methods, which are no longer considered safe.


See A. C. Hersom and E. D. Hulland, Canned Foods (1981); C. Walker, The Complete Book of Canning (1982).


(food engineering)
Packing and preserving of food in cans or jars subjected to sterilizing temperatures.
Placing a jacket around a slug of uranium before inserting the slug in a nuclear reactor.


1. Charles John, 1st Earl Canning. 1812--62, British statesman; governor general of India (1856--58) and first viceroy (1858--62)
2. his father, George. 1770--1827, British Tory statesman; foreign secretary (1822--27) and prime minister (1827)
References in periodicals archive ?
Never buy canned goods with dents, especially if found in the seams of the can," the FDA said.
Additionally, the development of canned goods as the ultimate convenience food will continue and with the launch of some premium soup products from Baxters in January 2005, we should see substantial added value as well.
Only nine percent of women and seven percent of men 18-34 stated the canned goods department would be a deciding factor when deciding which store they want to shop
In the grocery canned goods division we've had our best-ever year--the category has grown even faster than our overall business.
The top three sectors account for just over half the total canned goods market and they continue to be canned fish (22%), canned soup (16.
Whilst canned goods are facing stiff competition from perceived `fresh alternatives', they remain of fundamental importance to the grocery trade, driving volume and turnover for multiples and independents and offering customers convenient, cost-effective and easy-to-prepare food solutions.
Canned goods and unwrapped toys may be dropped off between 8 a.
Oxbridge grew out of the former Haigh Castle and Jack L Israel canned goods operations, two long established names in the business.
Los Angeles Family Housing in North Hollywood was scheduled to get some help from members of the Ladies Auxiliary of the Veterans of Foreign Wars District 7, California and other volunteers, who planned to distribute clothing, linens, toiletries, toys blankets, canned goods, books, magazines and trick-or-treat bags to the recently homeless.
Retailers and importers have agreed to share research data in their efforts to eliminate high tin levels in canned goods at a meeting of retail representatives and the British Importers' Association canned goods section at BRC HQ.
AWI is a $1 billion retailer-owned cooperative that supplies meat, dairy products, produce, bakery products, canned goods, and health and beauty-care items to independent grocers in Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the New England states.
Among the recipes (which are categorized by different canned goods used such as fish, chicken, beans, beer, veggies, fruit, etc.