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process of hermetically sealing cooked food for future use. It is a preservation method, in which prepared food is put in glass jars or metal cans that are hermetically sealed to keep out air and then heated to a specific temperature for a specified time to destroy disease-causing microorganisms and prevent spoilage. Low-acid foods, such as meats, are heated to 240°–265°F; (116°–129°C;), while acidic foods, such as fruits, are heated to about 212°F; (100°C;). Canning was invented in 1809 by Nicholas AppertAppert, Nicolas
, also known as François Appert
, 1750–1841, French originator of a method of canning. In 1795 the French government offered a prize of 12,000 francs for a method of preserving food, especially for use by the army and navy.
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. The process proved moderately successful and was gradually put into practice in other European countries and in the United States. Glass containers were used at first, but they proved bulky, costly, and brittle. Early canmaking was slow and expensive; sheets of tin were cut with shears, bent around a block, and the seams heavily soldered. A good tinsmith could make only about 60 cans a day. The industry began to assume importance with the invention in 1847 of the stamped can. Because of the food requirements of soldiers during the U.S. Civil War, considerable amounts of canned meats and vegetables were produced. Salmon from the Columbia River was canned in 1866 and salmon from Alaska in 1872. A machine for shaping and soldering was exhibited in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. The open-top can of the 20th cent., with a soldered lock seam and double-seamed ends, permits easy cleaning and filling. Cans used for foods that react with metals, causing discoloration (usually harmless), may be coated with a lacquer film. Highly specialized machinery, knowledge of bacteriology and food chemistry, as well as more efficient processes of cooking, have combined to make the commercial canning of food an important feature of modern life. The range of products canned has increased enormously and includes meat and poultry; fruits and vegetables; seafood; milk; and preserves, jams, jellies, pickles, and sauces. The general principles of commercial and home canning are the same, but the factory more accurately controls procedures and has highly specialized machinery. The Mason jar, popular in home canning, was patented in 1858. Home canning grew in popularity during World War II, when the harvest of "victory gardens" was canned. Canning leads to a loss of nutrient value in foods, particularly of the water-soluble vitamins. The home-canning methods recommended today are much more specific than the old-fashioned methods, which are no longer considered safe.


See A. C. Hersom and E. D. Hulland, Canned Foods (1981); C. Walker, The Complete Book of Canning (1982).


(food engineering)
Packing and preserving of food in cans or jars subjected to sterilizing temperatures.
Placing a jacket around a slug of uranium before inserting the slug in a nuclear reactor.


1. Charles John, 1st Earl Canning. 1812--62, British statesman; governor general of India (1856--58) and first viceroy (1858--62)
2. his father, George. 1770--1827, British Tory statesman; foreign secretary (1822--27) and prime minister (1827)
References in periodicals archive ?
We will not accept expired (out of date) canned goods, damaged or open canned goods.
Our shelves were almost depleted, and here comes these two boys with hundreds of boxes of donated canned goods to restock our shelves," says Skip Wrightson, outreach coordinator at Guadalupe Center, which has fed the hungry in the Valley for more than 60 years.
The company was attempting to ship case-packed corrugated cartons of assorted canned goods (fish, meat, veggies and fruit) to foreign destinations by ocean freight.
What: local organic and conventional produce, flowers, herbs, plants, baked goods, canned goods
You'll find 700 descriptive entries and over 200 illustrations of Indian products including rice and rice products, breads and flours, legumes and dais, spices and seasonings, spice mixes, powders, and pastes, aromatics and herbs, vegetables, fruits, canned goods, oils, pickles, chutneys, snacks, and more.
Companies that currently export canned goods to Barbados are urged to familiarize themselves with the relevant labeling standards prior to making shipments.
Don't overlook canned goods when you're developing a nutrition program, says a recent report conducted by the University of Massachusetts.
Heard takes in the giant boxes of Tampons, the 40 bunk beds, the stockpiles of canned goods, the escape hatch.
He said they had to go down to Holy Family Church for canned goods.
TV preacher Jerry Falwell is warning followers to stock up on canned goods and water -- as well as guns and ammunition -- to prepare for societal chaos in the year 2000 thanks to the so-called "Y2K" computer bug.
Unmarried Toon Herm-sen is a cleaning supervisor at a Heinz plant where tomato ketchup, sauces and canned goods are made.
Realizing that many food processors coat cans to avoid flavor-altering chemical reactions between the cans and their contents, Nicolas Olea and his coworkers at the University of Granada in Spain analyzed 20 different brands of canned goods.