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(kăn'ənĭzā`shən), in the Roman Catholic Church, process by which a person is classified as a saintsaint
[O.Fr., from Latin sanctus=holy], in Christianity, a person who is recognized as worthy of veneration. Nature of Sainthood

In the Hebrew Scriptures God is "the Holy One" or "one who is holy" (Isa. 1.4; 5.19; 41.14). "His people share His holiness" (Ex.
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. It is now performed at Rome alone, although in the Middle Ages and earlier bishops elsewhere used to canonize. Beatification, by which a person is called blessed and his or her cult is approved, requires proof of a miracle through the candidate's intercession (unless the candidate for sainthood was martyred) and proof that the candidate's life was exemplary, and must precede canonization. A candidate for sainthood may be declared venerable before beatification if the person led an exemplary life. Canonization requires proof of at least one additional miracle (occurring after beatification) attributable to the saint.

Until 1983 the process of canonization was like a trial at which the saint was said to be defended by the church; a prosecutor was appointed to attack all evidence alleged in favor of canonization. The prosecutor was popularly called advocatus diaboli [devil's advocate], his opponent the advocatus Dei [God's advocate]. The process has now been streamlined, and the position of devil's advocate eliminated.

The first solemn canonization seems to have been that of St. Ulrich late in the 10th cent. The method of formal canonization was set by the enactments of Urban VIII that came into force in 1634. In the Orthodox Eastern Church, a synod of bishops within a self-governing church has the authority to canonize.



in the Catholic and Orthodox churches the inclusion of some person in the list of saints. In Catholicism it is an act that has been strictly defined with respect to law and public worship. The church-wide method of canonization was introduced by Pope Alexander III during the second half of the 12th century and was fixed in 1200 by Innocent III; the right to canonize became the exclusive prerogative of the Roman popes. In implementing canonization the church always pursues political aims.

Orthodoxy does not have as strict a system of canonization as Catholicism. In Russia church-wide canonization was introduced in the 16th century and was placed under the tsar’s control; from the time of Peter I it was implemented by imperial decree upon the recommendation of the synod.

References in periodicals archive ?
Alenchery also led a brief prayer session after the canonisation ceremony took place.
Ironically, the Mass and canonisation rite, in part said in Latin and Italian, did not have Polish prayers in the Prayer of the Faithful after the homily, even if Pope John Paul II was Polish and was instrumental in the downfall of communism in his native land, noted the TV commentator.
Thousands of Irish people are expected to travel to Rome for the double canonisation as both Popes were very popular in this country.
10) On this latter point, see Smoller, "Defining the Boundaries of the Natural," 336-38; on the predominance of miracles in the Brittany inquest (as opposed to the other surviving inquests), see Laura Ackerman Smoller, "Northern and Southern Sanctity in the Canonization of Vincent Ferrer: The Effects of Procedural Differences on the Image of the Saint," in Proces de canonisation, ed.
The canonisation rite, which begins at 9 am and is expected to end by 12 noon, Rome time, however, has its share of criticism such as the fast track method to declare John Paul II saint just nine years after his death as well as claims by groups representing victims of sexual abuse by Catholic priests that he did not do enough to address the scandal squarely.
It is expected that the canonisation process will be completed within a year.
On October 25, Cardinal Desmond Connell will preside at a Mass to mark the canonisation in the church of St Therese in Mount Merrion.
Organisers were expecting as many as half a million people for the canonisation Mass, the highlight of the 24-hour visit.
The canonisation of Karol Wojtyla will be the crowning glory of the recent history of Catholicism, linking the last three pontificates," Saverio Gaeta, who wrote a biography of John Paul II, (http://vaticaninsider.