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(kăn'ənĭzā`shən), in the Roman Catholic Church, process by which a person is classified as a saintsaint
[O.Fr., from Latin sanctus=holy], in Christianity, a person who is recognized as worthy of veneration. Nature of Sainthood

In the Hebrew Scriptures God is "the Holy One" or "one who is holy" (Isa. 1.4; 5.19; 41.14). "His people share His holiness" (Ex.
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. It is now performed at Rome alone, although in the Middle Ages and earlier bishops elsewhere used to canonize. Beatification, by which a person is called blessed and his or her cult is approved, requires proof of a miracle through the candidate's intercession (unless the candidate for sainthood was martyred) and proof that the candidate's life was exemplary, and must precede canonization. A candidate for sainthood may be declared venerable before beatification if the person led an exemplary life. Canonization requires proof of at least one additional miracle (occurring after beatification) attributable to the saint.

Until 1983 the process of canonization was like a trial at which the saint was said to be defended by the church; a prosecutor was appointed to attack all evidence alleged in favor of canonization. The prosecutor was popularly called advocatus diaboli [devil's advocate], his opponent the advocatus Dei [God's advocate]. The process has now been streamlined, and the position of devil's advocate eliminated.

The first solemn canonization seems to have been that of St. Ulrich late in the 10th cent. The method of formal canonization was set by the enactments of Urban VIII that came into force in 1634. In the Orthodox Eastern Church, a synod of bishops within a self-governing church has the authority to canonize.



in the Catholic and Orthodox churches the inclusion of some person in the list of saints. In Catholicism it is an act that has been strictly defined with respect to law and public worship. The church-wide method of canonization was introduced by Pope Alexander III during the second half of the 12th century and was fixed in 1200 by Innocent III; the right to canonize became the exclusive prerogative of the Roman popes. In implementing canonization the church always pursues political aims.

Orthodoxy does not have as strict a system of canonization as Catholicism. In Russia church-wide canonization was introduced in the 16th century and was placed under the tsar’s control; from the time of Peter I it was implemented by imperial decree upon the recommendation of the synod.

References in periodicals archive ?
Despite their impact on popular Catholicism over the centuries, the pool from which formally canonized saints have been drawn has until recently been quite small.
In March the Vatican declared Day a "Servant of God" and gave a green light to the process by which Dorothy Day, a founder of the Catholic Worker movement, may be canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
This mileu has escaped historians' attention, since it emerged independently of, at times in opposition to, the state and the official practitioners of science who, Daum argues, have become canonized as the basis for "too narrow a definition of the mediators," thus obscuring significant "peculiarities in the history of popularization after 1848" (p.
She was later celebrated as a hero and canonized as Saint Joan of Arc.
by whose status she will be defined" and for whom, therefore, self is defined through relationships) yet canonized the "male" process of individuation as the norm, disregarding values rooted in female experience.
Juan Diego became the first indigenous American saint in the Catholic Church when Pope John Paul II canonized him in 2002.
He hoped Pat and Patty would be the first modern married couple to be canonized.
The New York native is attributed with one miracle but needs another before she can be canonized, a Vatican-based process that determines sainthood.
CANONIZED FOUNDER OF EARTHWORKS, film-maker, respected antiformalist theorist, "preconscious" religious visionary, homoerotic draftsman, and Beat poet (not to mention posthumous market-driven photographer)--these Robert Smithsons have proliferated since the artist aligned himself with the new entropic monuments later designated as Minimal art.
POPE JOHN PAUL II HAS canonized Jose Maria Escriva de Balaguer, the Spanish Roman Catholic priest and founder of the Opus Dei movement.
This chapter concentrates on the English romances canonized by the studies of Northrop Frye: Robert Greene's Pandosto and Menaphon; Spenser's Faerie Queen (book 6); and Shakespeare's Winter's Tale, Cymbeline, and The Tempest.