capillarity


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Related to capillarity: surface tension

capillarity

or

capillary action,

phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid is observed to be elevated or depressed where it comes into contact with a solid. For example, the surface of water in a clean drinking glass is seen to be slightly higher at the edges, where it contacts the glass, than in the middle. Capillarity can be explained by considering the effects of two opposing forces: adhesion, the attractive (or repulsive) force between the molecules of the liquid and those of the container, and cohesion, the attractive force between the molecules of the liquid (see adhesion and cohesionadhesion and cohesion,
attractive forces between material bodies. A distinction is usually made between an adhesive force, which acts to hold two separate bodies together (or to stick one body to another) and a cohesive force, which acts to hold together the like or unlike
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). Adhesion causes water to wet a glass container and thus causes the water's surface to rise near the container's walls. If there were no forces acting in opposition, the water would creep higher and higher on the walls and eventually overflow the container. The forces of cohesion act to minimize the surface area of the liquid (see surface tensionsurface tension,
tendency of liquids to reduce their exposed surface to the smallest possible area. A drop of water, for example, tends to assume the shape of a sphere. The phenomenon is attributed to cohesion, the attractive forces acting between the molecules of the liquid
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); when the cohesive force acting to reduce the surface area becomes equal to the adhesive force acting to increase it (e.g., by pulling water up the walls of a glass), equilibrium is reached and the liquid stops rising where it contacts the solid. In some liquid-solid systems, e.g., mercury and glass or water and polyethylene plastic, the liquid does not wet the solid, and its surface is depressed where it contacts the solid. Capillarity is one of the causes of the upward flow of water in the soil and in plants.

capillarity

[‚kap·ə′lar·əd·ē]
(fluid mechanics)
The action by which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. Also known as capillary action.

capillary action, capillarity

1.The movement of a liquid in the interstices of soil or other porous material, as a result of surface tension.
2. The phenomenon responsible for dry soil sucking up moisture above the ground water level. Also see capillary flow.

capillarity

Physics a phenomenon caused by surface tension and resulting in the distortion, elevation, or depression of the surface of a liquid in contact with a solid
References in periodicals archive ?
The dampness, actually capillarity humidity or ascendant humidity, may be caused by an accumulation of water at the base of the wall of the monument or church, by the lifting of the groundwater, by the degradation of the insulation at the base of the wall, or by the movement of the soil, as well as by other causes.
Through the capillarity of the Internet, these new players and these new networks and circuits have shown exponential growth rates.
The existing types of humidity that have the most effect on the external and internal painting of the churches are infiltration humidity, caused by flaws in the roof or exposure to rain, capillarity humidity, which can be found in walls after contact with humid soil, condensation humidity which appears on cold surfaces, variable humidity caused by the heterogeneity if the hygroscopic materials and induced humidity or humidity caused by humid air that comes from the soil.
Capillarity action brings the dampness up through the lower walls, weakening their stress limit and creating salt crystals which crack the sodium rich limestone most medieval buildings are constructed from.
This decouples capillarity from permeability and optimizes ink and coated paper surface interaction.
Van Der Waals' "The Thermodynamic Theory of Capillarity under the Hypothesis of a Continuous Variation of Density", J.
1-2); and Surface Tension, Wetting and Capillarity (Aug.
It is shown that in case of copper alloying by the elements, which may affect rate of the melt evaporation, peculiarities of phase transformations in binary and more complex systems and possibility of morphology control of structural components and capillarity of a system in liquid-solid state have to be taken into account.
In addition to all this, Laplace could be called the leader of a school of young scientists whom he encouraged, rewarded, and exploited at his country estate of Arcueil outside Paris to carry out his programme of scientific research in sound, heat, optics, and the phenomena of capillarity.
The works in "Robotnik," like its namesake computer game, stress dynamism, temporality: We are witnessing the process in which a cohabitation of circles arranged in a regular grid pattern arbitrarily transforms itself, by sheer capillarity, into a differentiated grouping of amoebas of various sizes and colors.
4) The capillarity of the structure in waxy surface leads the adhesive fluid secreted by insect pads to be absorbed by the wax crystals (Gorb et al.
No other network could reach the entire national territory or achieve such a level of capillarity because Deutsche Telekom's network had been developed with huge investments over many years and was protected by a monopoly.