carbonyl group


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Related to carbonyl group: hydroxyl group, Alkoxy group

carbonyl group

(kär`bənĭl), in chemistry, functional groupfunctional group,
in organic chemistry, group of atoms within a molecule that is responsible for certain properties of the molecule and reactions in which it takes part. Organic compounds are frequently classified according to the functional group or groups they contain.
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 that consists of an oxygen atom joined by a double bond to a carbon atom. The carbon atom is joined to the remainder of the molecule by two single bonds or one double bond. If the carbonyl group is joined only to alkyl groupsalkyl group
, in chemistry, group of carbon and hydrogen atoms derived from an alkane molecule by removing one hydrogen atom (see radical). The name of the alkyl group is derived from the name of its alkane by replacing the -ane suffix with -yl, e.g.
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 or aryl groupsaryl group
, in chemistry, group of atoms derived from benzene or from a benzene derivative by removing one hydrogen that is bonded to the benzene ring (see radical). The simplest aryl group is phenyl, C6H5 ; it is derived from benzene.
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, the compound is a ketoneketone
, any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, C=O, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR′, where R and R′ are alkyl or aryl groups.
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; if it is joined to at least one hydrogen atom, the compound is an aldehydealdehyde
[alcohol + New Lat. dehydrogenatus=dehydrogenated], any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, , and in which the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen; the general formula for an aldehyde is RCHO, where R is hydrogen
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. The chemical reactivity of aldehydes and ketones is primarily due to the difference in electronegativityelectronegativity
, in chemistry, tendency for an atom to attract a pair of electrons that it shares with another atom (see chemical bond). For example, the molecule hydrogen chloride, HCl, consists of a hydrogen atom, H, and a chlorine atom, Cl, sharing a pair of electrons.
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 between carbon and oxygen. Because oxygen has the greater affinity for electrons, it acquires a partial negative charge, becoming electron-rich; the carbon atom of the carbonyl group thus becomes electron-deficient, acquiring a partial positive charge. One major type of reaction of aldehydes and ketones involves the addition of an electron-rich chemical species to the electron-deficient carbon atom of the carbonyl group. Another type of reaction is due to the tendency of the electron-deficient carbon atom of the carbonyl group to partially attract electrons from carbon atoms adjacent to it in the molecule, thus increasing the acidity of hydrogen atoms that are bonded to the adjacent carbon.

carbonyl group

[′kär·bə‚nil ‚grüp]
(organic chemistry)
References in periodicals archive ?
23), (53) Despite the abundance of literature supporting imine formation from reaction between the carbonyl group and primary amines, specific reports on the keto-hydrazide are few.
There were no significant differences in median carbonyl groups concentrations between children with and without LVH (1.
The carbonyl group presence in the side chains of phenoxazone ring promotes an electron movement in which the methoxy group stabilizes the charges most satisfactorily in ortho and para positions.
1] belongs to the carbonyl group, as well as amide I and amide II bands at 1623 and 1580 [cm.
The presence of the carbonyl group leads to an abundant ion at m/z 181, which corresponds to the PFB group used for the PFB ester derivatization.
8 (C-1) substantiated its attachment with aromatic moiety and carbonyl group, whereas, the HMBC interaction of the oxymethylene (d 4.
As main effectors of the oxidative stress, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) were demonstrated; as targets of the oxidative stress, lipid droplets were investigated; as indices of ROS-induced injury, carbonyl groups induced in proteins by oxidative stress were evidenced; and as a key component of the antioxidant defense, the expression of Mn-dependent Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) was investigated.
In the absorption range of carbonyl group (C=0), the urethane carbonyl band appears at different wavenumbers, depending on whether the free electron pair of the amine group is conjugated with the [pi] bond of the carbonyl group in HDI-based STPUs (1682 [cm.
The absorption of the olefinic bond in conjugation with the carbonyl group occurs at a lower frequency than that of an isolated (C=C) bond [13], furthermore, there is no IR absorption band for hydroxyl group (-OH), but there is a large IR absorption bands at 1320-1329 [cm.
Chapter topics include alkylation and allylation adjacent to a carbonyl group, asymmetric alkylation or aminatin of allylic esters, Suzuki, Beck and Sonogashira coupling reactions, cross-coupling reactions, regioselective or asymmetric 1,2-addition to aldehydes, olefin metathesis reactions, cyclization reactions, asymmetric aldol and Michael reactions, and steroeselective hydroformylation, carbonylation and carboxylation reactions.
The absorption bands due to aromatic CH, carbonyl group, C=N and C=C appeared at max 3111, 1689, 1649, 1603 and 1464 cm-1, respectively.