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(myocardosis), a term often applied to a broad group of heart diseases; specifically, noninflammatory lesions of the heart muscle (myocardium) resulting from a disturbance in myocardial metabolism. Among the causes of cardiomyopathy are nutritional disorders (alimentary dystrophy and avitaminosis, for example); protein metabolism disorders in hepatic or renal insufficiency and podagra; disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus) and electrolyte metabolism; and endocrine disorders such as those associated with thyrotoxicosis and with hypoxia in impairment of coronary circulation, anemia, and mountain sickness. Myocardosis may also be caused by overstraining the myocardium and by exogenous poisons, such as carbon monoxide and alcohol.

In many cases the patient has no specific symptoms in the early stages; however, there may be shortness of breath and disagreeable sensations in the heart. Cardiomyopathy is manifested by dull, distant heart sounds, electrocardiographic changes, systolic murmur, extrasystole, and, more rarely, other types of arrhythmia. Severe cardiomyopathy weakens the heart contractions and may cause cardiac insufficiency. The changes associated with cardiomyopathy are usually reversible and disappear with the elimination of the underlying disease.

The cure includes treatment of the underlying disease and administration of agents that improve metabolic processes in the myocardium.


Kedrov, A. A. Bolezni myshtsy serdtsa. Leningrad, 1963.


References in periodicals archive ?
Secondary cardiomyopathies show pathological myocardial involvement as part of a large number and variety of generalized systemic (multiorgan) disorders.
The guidelines contain in-depth information on the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic impact of genetic testing for five cardiomyopathies and six channelopathies.
Because it was conducted in a tertiary referral centre for inherited cardiomyopathies there may be a referral bias, which may overestimate the true frequency of familial DCM.
3) Cardiac MRI employing viability imaging is an efficient, noninvasive method of characterization of the various cardiomyopathies based on the varied patterns of myocardial enhancement and distribution of scar.
This genetically targeted approach has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of cardiomyopathies, and ultimately a broader spectrum of cardiovascular disease, including heart failure.
HRS/EHRA expert consensus statement on the state of genetic testing for the channelopathies and cardiomyopathies [published correction appears in Europace.
Cardiomyopathies are currently classified as primary with predominant involvement of the heart, and secondary with myocardial involvement due to multi-organ disease.
Microvascular spasm as a cause of cardiomyopathies and the calcium blocking-agent verapamil as potential primary therapy.
Although obesity is common, reports of its association or coexistence with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are scant in the literature.
Most feline cardiomyopathies are primary diseases--those whose origins are either genetic or unknown.
Studies have shown a better prognosis for patients with PPCM when compared with patients with cardiomyopathies of other known causes like doxorubicin therapy, HIV infection, infiltrative myocardial disease, and ischemic heart disease.
The differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in a young patient includes idiopathic, peripartum, viral storage disorder, sarcoid, alcoholic, cocaine-induced, and drug-induced cardiomyopathies.