cardiopulmonary resuscitation


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cardiopulmonary resuscitation

(CPR), emergency procedure used to treat victims of cardiac and respiratory arrest. CPR can be done in a hospital with drugs and special equipment or as a first-aid technique. In either case it is done with great urgency to avoid the brain damage or death that result from four to six minutes without oxygen.

The first-aid procedure uses external heart massage (to keep the blood flowing through the body), which may be combined with artificial respiration (to keep air flowing in and out of the lungs). The victim is placed face up and if artificial respirationartificial respiration,
any measure that causes air to flow in and out of a person's lungs when natural breathing is inadequate or ceases, as in respiratory paralysis, drowning, electric shock, choking, gas or smoke inhalation, or poisoning.
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 is to be used, prepared for that. The person administering CPR places his or her hands (one on top of the other, with fingers interlocked) heel down on the victim's breastbone, leans forward, and makes 30 quick, rhythmical compressions (at a rate of about two per second) of about 2 in. (5 cm). This is followed by two breaths, administered using the mouth-to-mouth method of artificial respiration. CPR for infants and children differs in the ratio of compressions to breaths, and the compression of the chest is only 1 to 1.5 in. (2.5 to 3.8 cm). Ideally the procedure is done by two people, one to give mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration and one to apply external heart massage, and special training is recommended.

External heart massage alone may be given if a person is unwilling or unable to provide artificial respiration; studies have shown that heart massage alone can be as effective as both techniques combined. External heart massage only, also known as hands-only CPR, at the rate of 100 compressions per minute, is now considered as acceptable as standard CPR for teenagers and adults who have not collapsed due to breathing problems or drug abuse or who are not drowning victims.

It is recommended that CPR be continued for at least 45 minutes, but if there is no pulse after 20 minutes, experts now recommend considering other prodecures such as extracorporeal membrance oxygenation, in which the blood is circulated through an external filter that oxygenates it. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the hospital is an aggressive technique employing drugs and defibrillation equipment, which administers an electrical shock to the heart in an attempt to restore the heartbeat. There is some controversy surrounding its use in patients whose prognosis is poor.

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

[¦kärd·ē·ō′pu̇l·mə‚ner·ē ri‚səs·ə′tā·shən]
(medicine)
The simultaneous forced ventilation of the lungs and squeezing of the heart ventricles to sustain the flow of oxygenated blood throughout the system; often applied in cases of cardiac arrest. Abbreviated CPR.
References in periodicals archive ?
2005 International consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations.
Dentists' Attitudes Toward Up-To-Date Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Guidelines.
Part 4: CPR Overview 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.
Part 8: Adult advanced cardiovascular life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.
The influence of the probability of survival on patients' preferences regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Patients were randomised to receive BMV or ETI during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
The Red Cross courses include: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Professional Rescuers; First Aid/ CPR/Automatic External Defibrillator; and Instructor Training.
Some said they arrived home after church or errands Sunday and saw Freeman outside, dressed in pajamas and wearing handcuffs, while rescue workers administered cardiopulmonary resuscitation to the victim.
A new study suggests that television shows depict cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as an unrealistically effective procedure.
Sackner added: "As described in the patent, the motion platform technology can be employed as a stand alone cardiopulmonary resuscitation device or in conjunction with standard techniques to 'condition' the heart, brain and other organs against the damaging effects of diminished blood flow during cardiac arrest.
1) Materials auxiliary training for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (1 Unit)
Prison medical staff and paramedics performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation on him, but could not revive him.

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