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popular hymn, of joyful nature, in celebration of an occasion such as May Day, Easter, or Christmas. The earliest English carols date from the 15th cent. The carol is characterized by simplicity of thought and expression. Many are thought to be adaptations of pagan songs. Despite the folk-song character of true carols, many Christmas hymns composed in the 19th cent. have been called carols. The oldest printed carol is the Boar's Head Carol, printed in 1521 by Wynkyn de Worde. Carols of French origin are called noels.


See R. L. Greene, The Early English Carols (1935); E. Routley, The English Carol (1958); P. Dearmer et al., ed., The Oxford Book of Carols (1928, repr. 1964).



(Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen), rulers of Rumania.

Carol I. Born Apr. 20, 1839, in Sigmaringen, Germany; died Oct. 10, 1914, in Sinaia, Rumania. Prince of Rumania from 1866 to 1881 and then king. A relative of the Prussian king William I, he was elected prince by a reactionary coalition of landowners and bourgeoisie known as the “monstrous coalition.” His foreign policy was favorable to Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1883 he concluded a secret treaty of Rumanian adherence to the Triple Alliance of 1882.

Carol II. Born Oct. 15, 1893, in Sinaia, Rumania; died Apr. 4, 1953, in Estoril, Portugal. King from 1930 to 1940. In February 1938 he established a royal dictatorship, abolished political parties and trade unions, and formed the National Renaissance Front, a reactionary, fascist-type organization. In March 1939 he concluded an economic treaty with Germany that was highly unfavorable to Rumania. He also submitted to the Vienna Arbitration of 1940, which took northern Transylvania away from Rumania and granted it to Hungary. In September of that year, however, as the result of growing internal and external opposition, he abdicated and went abroad.


Tütui, G., and M. Popa. Hohenzollernii in Rominia. Bucharest, 1962.


An area in a cloister set off by screens, partitions, or railings; similar in use to a carrel.


1. a joyful hymn or religious song, esp one (a Christmas carol) celebrating the birth of Christ
2. Archaic an old English circular dance
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Last-minute carolers don't receive gifts but still show up for the communal music-making.
Photo: Candle-lit carolers share songbooks borrowed from a church.
Genny taught Elyse the signs or gestures of the words in the song, from there Elyse taught the Silent Voice Carolers what facial expression works best.
In previous years the carolers used to walk around North Shields singing on peoples' doorsteps.
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BEFORE MALLS BEGAN to lure shoppers away, urban Christmas shopping was an adventure worthy of anticipation: dressing up and heading downtown, peering at elaborately decorated store windows, popping into a grand hotel to lunch or listen to carolers.
Carolers visit senior group homes and private residences, singing traditional, inclusive holiday carols for homebound seniors.
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As he shuts the TV off, young carolers arrive singing "Away In A Manger.
This year guests can stroll through the decorated, historic village; listen to carolers and local choirs sing Christmas classics; take a horse-drawn winter sleigh ride (weather permitting); enjoy the warmth from a crackling bonfire and fireplaces; and even visit with Old Saint Nick.