massage

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massage

(məsäzh`), treatment of superficial parts of the body by systematic rubbing, stroking, kneading, or slapping. Massages can be administered manually or with mechanical devices. They are sought most often to relieve muscle stiffness, spasms, or cramps and to relieve anxiety and tension. Gentle massage has a soothing action on the sensory nerves. More vigorous massage quickens the circulation and aids the muscles in disposing of accumulated waste products. Some methods of massage cause the muscles to contract and thus exercise them when movement of the entire body is not possible or desirable, as in illness or paralysis. However, there is no evidence that massage can reduce or alter fat or adipose tissue. Men and women who are trained in the art of massage are known as masseurs and masseuses, respectively.

Massage

 

a therapeutic method; the totality of procedures (mechanical and reflex) for affecting the tissues and organs with the hands or special equipment.

In general massage the whole body is massaged, and in localized massage, the face, extremities, abdomen, and so forth. The principal techniques are stroking, rubbing, kneading, and vibration. Stroking—slow rhythmic massage with one or both hands in the direction of the blood flow—begins and ends the massage and is used after each of the other techniques. Rubbing, a more energetic procedure than stroking, is performed with the fingers, the whole palm, or the base or edge of the palm of one or both hands, moving longitudinally, transversely, circularly, or in zigzags or spirals. Kneading, in which one or both hands move longitudinally, transversely, semicircularly, or spirally, is used primarily on muscle tissue. Vibration includes intermittent pummeling or chopping and vibration proper (oscillatory movements made without removing the hands from the working area). It may also be done with equipment, such as the vibrating chair and the Velotrab (for general vibration) and a portable apparatus with a set of Vibratods or an apparatus for pulsating massage (for localized treatment).

In general, the essential rule in performing all massage techniques is maximum relaxation of the muscles in the area massaged.

Massage has a multifaceted effect on the body and evokes complex reactions involving all the tissues, organs, and systems. It improves the movement of lymph and blood in the vessels and tones the vascular system, facilitating the work of the heart. The hemoglobin content of the blood and the erythrocyte and leukocyte counts are raised. Massage increases gas exchange and the excretion of mineral salts, urea, and uric acid. Changing the character, force, and duration of the massage can affect the functional state of the cerebral cortex by lowering or raising general excitability, intensifying attenuated reflexes and reviving lost ones, improving the function of conduction tracts, and reinforcing the reflex links of the cerebral cortex with the muscles, vessels, and internal organs. Massage can accelerate the regeneration of a nerve after injury and relieve or stop pain.

Under the influence of massage, the skin becomes pink, resilient, and elastic. Its resistance to temperature and to mechanical influences increases, and its metabolism improves. The elasticity of the muscle fibers increases, and their contractive function, tonus, and strength improve. Atrophy phenomena decrease. Massage strengthens the bursal-ligamental apparatus of the joints and increases their mobility.

Massage is used for hygienic, prophylactic, and therapeutic purposes and in athletic training. Hygienic massage improves the health and is a way of taking care of the body. It prevents excessive deposit of fats and salts and helps maintain the figure. For hygienic purposes, general massage is most often administered. One of the forms of hygienic massage is cosmetic massage, which is done to prevent wrinkling of the skin and to smooth out blemishes on the face and neck. In athletic training, massage helps maintain athletic form, combat fatigue, and restore strength after strenuous muscular work. There are several types of athletic massage, including preparatory, training, and restorative massage. Self-massage is used for hygienic purposes, in combination with morning calisthenics and aquatic exercises. Sometimes it is prescribed for therapeutic purposes (for example, in the treatment of contusions and sprains).

Therapeutic massage is used in the treatment of diseases and injuries of the motor and support apparatus, metabolic disturbances (obesity, diabetes mellitus, and gout), and diseases of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and nervous systems. In reflex-segmental massage various organs and tissues are affected through the massage of certain areas of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and muscles. Reflex-segmental massage is prescribed for therapeutic purposes, as is pneumomassage, or vacuum massage, in which waves of air are used to improve the peripheral blood circulation. Syncardial massage, which is also prescribed for therapeutic purposes, involves the rhythmic compression of the vessels of the extremities by means of a special apparatus called the Synkardon. Another form of therapeutic massage, underwater massage, is performed by a special apparatus that creates an underwater stream under as much as two to four atmospheres pressure.

Closed cardiac massage (intermittent pressure on the chest) is used to treat cardiac arrest. In some cases, the thorax is opened surgically, and the heart itself is massaged.

REFERENCES

Verbov, A. F. Osnovy lechebnogo massazha, 4th ed. Moscow, 1958. (References.)
Gubert, K. D., and M. G. Ryss. Gimnastika i massazh v rannem vozraste, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1963.
Sarkizov-Serazini, I. M. Sportivnyi massazh, 4th ed. Moscow, 1963.

G. S. FEDOROVA

massage

[mə′säzh]
(computer science)
To process data, primarily to convert it into a more useful form or into a form that will simplify processing.
(medicine)
The act of rubbing, kneading, or stroking the superficial parts of the body with the hand or with an instrument, for therapeutic purposes.

massage

the act of kneading, rubbing, etc., parts of the body to promote circulation, suppleness, or relaxation

massage

Vague term used to describe "smooth" transformations of a data set into a different form, especially transformations that do not lose information. Connotes less pain than munch or crunch. "He wrote a program that massages X bitmap files into GIF format." Compare slurp.

massage

To process data.
References in periodicals archive ?
Whether carotid sinus massage should be routinely performed in A&E requires further evaluation.
Moreover there are no data for normal heart rate and blood pressure responses to carotid sinus massage during upright posture or for the reproducibility of the response.
The purpose of this study was to define heart rate and blood pressure responses to surpine and upright carotid sinus massage in healthy elderly subjects and thus to assess the validity of accepted diagnostic criteria for carotid sinus syndrome in this age group.
Right- and left-side carotid sinus massage was repeated during 70 [degrees] head-up tilt (Akron automated tilt table: footplate support).
Carotid sinus massage was performed by the same investigator in all subjects.
In a further four patients who denied loss of consciousness, syncope was reproduced during upright carotid sinus massage with retrograde amnesia for this event.
Ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension or peripheral vascular disease was present in 62% of patients with an abnormal response to carotid sinus massage.
Benefits of diagnostic tests: In 61%, correct final diagnoses were suspected after the initial history and clinical examination; 24-hour electrocardiography identified an abnormality in 21% and carotid sinus massage in 45%.
Routine use of carotid sinus massage, with recordings during supine and erect posture, and continuous phasic blood pressure measurements before and after atropine, has not been previously reported for symptomatic elderly patients.