cartilage


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Related to cartilage: hyaline cartilage, articular cartilage

cartilage

(kär`təlĭj), flexible semiopaque connective tissueconnective tissue,
supportive tissue widely distributed in the body, characterized by large amounts of intercellular substance and relatively few cells. The intercellular material, or matrix, is produced by the cells and gives the tissue its particular character.
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 without blood vessels or nerve cells. It forms part of the skeletal system in humans and in other vertebrates, and is also known as gristle. Temporary cartilage makes up the skeletal system of the fetus and the infant, forming a model for later replacement by bonebone,
hard tissue that forms the skeleton of the body in vertebrate animals. In the very young, the skeleton is composed largely of cartilage and is therefore pliable, reducing the incidence of bone fracture and breakage in childhood.
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 as the body matures. Permanent cartilage remains throughout life, as in the external ear, nose, larynx, and windpipe (or trachea). Cartilage is also present at the jointsjoint,
in anatomy, juncture between two bones. Some joints are immovable, e.g., those that connect the bones of the skull, which are separated merely by short, tough fibers of cartilage. Movable joints are found for the most part in the limbs.
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, where it reduces friction and imparts flexibility. There are three major types of cartilage appearing in vertebrates. The most common is hyaline cartilage, which composes the pre-skeletal model and is found in adults at the joints, in the nose, and in several internal organs. Elastic cartilage is found in several parts of the ear and in the epiglottis, and is the most pliable type of cartilage. Fibrocartilage is found in the intervertebral disks, and is an extremely resilient tissue.

Cartilage

A firm, resilient connective tissue of vertebrates and some invertebrates. Isolated pieces act to provide support and anchor muscles, or with bone to contribute its resilience and interstitial growth to skeletal functions. Cartilage comprises a firm extracellular matrix synthesized by large, ovoid cells (chondrocytes) located in holes called lacunae. The matrix elements are water bound by the high negative charge of extended proteoglycan (protein-polysaccharide) molecules, and a network of fine collagen fibrils. The elements furnish mechanical stability, give, and tensile strength, but allow the diffusion of nutrients and waste to keep the cells alive. See Bone, Collagen

Cartilage is modified in several ways. In elastic cartilage, elastic fibers in the matrix increase resilience, as in cartilages supporting the Eustachian tube, mammalian external ear, and parts of the larynx. Where cartilage joins bones tightly at certain joints with limited mobility, for example, at the pubic symphysis and between vertebrae, the matrix of fibrocartilage contains prominent collagen fibers and has less proteoglycan than the typical hyaline variety. Hyaline cartilage, named for its glassy translucence, is the major support in the airway; and throughout the embryo, pieces of it develop as a precursor to the bony skeleton, except in the face and upper skull. See Ear (vertebrate), Larynx

The primitive cartilaginous skeleton undergoes another modification, by locally calcifying its matrix. At sites of calcification, invading cells destroy the cartilage and mostly replace it by bone, leaving permanent hyaline cartilage only at the joint or articular surfaces, in some ribs, and, until maturity, at growth plates set back from the joints and perpendicular to the long axis of limb bones. The precarious physiological balance between chondrocytes and matrix materials in the heavily loaded articular cartilage breaks down in old age or in inflamed joints. See Connective tissue, Joint (anatomy)

Cartilage

 

a connective tissue that performs a mechanical (support) function; it is found in all vertebrates, including man, and in some invertebrates, for example, cephalopod mollusks. In cartilaginous fish and cyclostomes the entire skeleton consists of cartilage; in other vertebrates the cartilaginous skeleton occurs only in embryos. In adult mammals, including man, cartilage is preserved in the joint surfaces of bones, in the thoracic ends of the ribs, in the tracheal and bronchial walls, and in the auricle of the external ear. It also is present in the nasal wall, larynx, epiglottis, and eyelids.

Cartilage is formed from the mesenchyma. It is constructed from cells known as chondrocytes and by the intercellular substance elaborated by the cells. The substance consists of collagenous fibers (chondrin) and ground substance. Three types of cartilage—hyaline, elastic, and fibrous—are distinguished according to the characteristics of the intercellular substance. Hyaline cartilage is the most common. Its large quantity of ground substance and the similar values of the refractive index of ground substance and fibrous component determine its external features: homogeneity and glassiness. Elastic cartilage differs from hyaline cartilage in that it has elastic fibers. Fibrous cartilage has bundles of collagenous fibers that can be easily observed under a light microscope.

Cartilage is covered with a membrane of connective tissue, perichondrium, which contains cells capable of changing into chondrocytes. Cartilage grows mainly by such transformation and by the division of cartilage cells (intercalary growth). Cartilage does not have blood vessels; nutrients penetrate it by diffusion.

N. G. KHRUSHCHOV

cartilage

[′kärd·əl·ij]
(histology)
A specialized connective tissue which is bluish, translucent, and hard but yielding.

cartilage

a tough elastic tissue composing most of the embryonic skeleton of vertebrates. In the adults of higher vertebrates it is mostly converted into bone, remaining only on the articulating ends of bones, in the thorax, trachea, nose, and ears
References in periodicals archive ?
The important question is why cartilage doesn't deflate over the course of days, months or years in our joints," said David Burris, an assistant professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Delaware.
The purposes of this study were to characterize the effect of decellularization on the biochemistry of porcine articular cartilage, determine the effect of genipin concentration on the degree of crosslinking, quantify the effect of genipin crosslinking on the stiffness of the cartilage-bone interface, and evaluate the effect of genipin-fixed cartilage on the viability of primary autologous chondrocytes.
Metallic articulating against hyaline cartilage, can potentially cause pain and articular cartilage erosion in some patients.
But now experts have identified a rare type of cell which can be grown in a lab to make enough cartilage for transplants.
He said the cartilage is alive and remains alive in Valerie's body with the cells of the donor.
Articular cartilage is arranged into functional layers or zones (superficial, intermediate, deep) which blend into a calcified zone, which in turn is adherent to the underlying subchondral bone (Fig.
This breakthrough could aid people who are disabled by osteoarthritis, a disease that destroys the tissues cushioning joints, as well as those with cartilage that has been damaged through sports-related injuries and other accidents.
Researchers have been able to create cartilage cells from undifferentiated stem cells taken from samples of bone marrow, but harvesting such cells is invasive and painful for the donor and the number of cells gained is small.
The brand of shark cartilage probably most widely used in the United States is Cartilade.
Particularly the natural association between cartilage, tendons and ligaments is often not made.
para]]Data Presented at the World Congress of the International Cartilage Repair Society and the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy[[/para]]
We conducted a study to examine the viability, host response, and volume retention characteristics of drilled human septal cartilage slurry when injected into an athymic nude mouse model.