casein


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casein

(kā`sēn), well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cow's milk, but only 40% in human milk. Casein is a remarkably efficient nutrient, supplying not only essential amino acids, but also some carbohydrates and the inorganic elements calcium and phosphorus. The calcium caseinates form an insoluble white curd when acidified by hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, or when milk is soured by bacterial contaminants. Acid casein is used widely in cheese, adhesives, water paints, for coating paper, and in printing textiles and wallpaper. In neutral solutions the enzyme rennin converts one of the caseins to an insoluble curd; most of the protein in cheese is rennetrennet,
substance containing rennin, an enzyme having the property of clotting, or curdling, milk. It is used in the making of cheese and junket. Rennet is obtained from the stomachs of young mammals living on milk, especially from the inner lining of the fourth, or true,
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 casein curd. When treated with formaldehyde the curd forms casein plastic, used for manufacturing imitation tortoiseshell, jade, and lapis lazuli.

Casein

 

a complex phosphoprotein that is formed from its precursor caseinogen as a result of the splitting of peptide bonds in the process of milk curdling. Casein is readily soluble in saline solutions in neutral or alkaline media, and it precipitates when acidified. Its molecular weight is 75, 000–100, 000.

Casein is a heterogeneous protein; by physical and chemical methods it can be divided into three fractions that are similar to one another in amino-acid composition, (α-casein β-casein, and γ-casein). Dried casein is a tasteless and odorless white powder. Casein is the principal protein component of milk and milk products. Cow’s milk contains 2.8–3.5 percent casein; human milk, 0.3–0.9 percent. This most important dietary protein contains a complete complement of the essential amino acids; it contains especially high percentages of methionine (~3.5 percent), lysine (˜6.9 percent), tryptophan (~ 1.8 percent), leucine (˜12.1 percent), and valine (7.0 percent). The stomachs of mammals shortly after birth contain the enzyme chymosin, or rennin, which curdles milk (this can also be catalyzed by other proteolytic enzymes). In industry casein is used in the manufacture of paints, glues, synthetic fibers, and plastics.

I. B. ZBARSKII

casein

[′ka‚sēn]
(organic chemistry)
The protein of milk; a white solid soluble in acids.

casein

A protein; the chief nitrogenous ingredient of milk.

casein

a phosphoprotein, precipitated from milk by the action of rennin, forming the basis of cheese: used in the manufacture of plastics and adhesives
References in periodicals archive ?
Development policies and plans of Casein market are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are analyzed.
9% share of the global casein and caseinate market in 2014 and is expected to register a healthy CAGR of 5.
Comparison of the digestion of caseins and whey proteins in equine, bovine, caprine and human milks by human gastrointestinal enzymes.
The difference between the A1 and A2 type beta-casein variants is a single amino acid substitution at the 67th residue of the 209-amino acid beta casein protein chain (Figure 2).
Both dairy whey and casein have been shown to influence appetite, with whey more frequently being shown to have a greater effect in suppressing hunger and reducing subsequent food intake compared to casein.
A randomized, double-blind study was used to compare the effects of consuming casein versus whey protein before and after exercise for eight weeks on resistance-trained (> 1 years) NCAA Division III female basketball players.
Casein also aids the absorption of vitamins and minerals and is vital to the production of haemoglobin, the metalloprotein in red blood cells that transports oxygen around the body.
The more casein a dairy product contains, the more difficult it is to digest.
Another intriguing fact is the link between an important player in the 2G spectrum case, now under arrest, and the casein industry.
Two isolates, BGPT1-10P and BGPT1-78, showed the most intense hydrolysis of some casein fractions, total casein as well as gelatin.
By inhibiting the enzyme casein kinase 1, were able to restart the clock when it had stopped ticking altogether.
Gluten is the protein found in wheat, rye and other grains, while casein is a milk protein.