model of moral philosophy assumes, of course, the existence of some manner of "moral community.
Eventually the casuist
, by entertaining a variety of circumstances, exposes the morally defining ones that make a new case morally different from the original one.
The traditional casuists
, however, were not situationists, because they operated within the guidance of general moral maxims and the generalized patterns of value determined by paradigmatic cases.
Since we live in a pluralistic and fractured society, we should expect that our casuists
will be guided by many conflicting theoretical persuasions and notions of the good.
It is interesting, for example, that the well-known casuist
William Perkins, in his Epieikeia, or a Treatise of Christian Equity and Moderation (1604) should scarcely mention conscience, but conceive equity almost exclusively in terms of the second of Lord Ellesmere's categories: "The matter whereabout this public equity is conversant is the right and convenient, and the moderate and discreet execution of the laws of men.
32) The playwright's sympathetic portrayal of the countess as a woman who insists upon a sacramental interpretation of her vows while her chastity is under siege appears intended as a casuist
argument to create empathy in Elizabeth for noblemen's wives who sought to maintain their observance of the Old Faith.
Although he later disagreed with some of its approaches and conclusions, he learned in his early theological training the skills of a good casuist
Attempts to plumb the significance of the clause "in principle" in John Paul's allocution, which is essential for practicing ethics in a Catholic healthcare setting, appear as overly rigorous hairsplitting at best, and at worst as casuist
sophistry for those seeking to establish a clear identity.
In insisting that this moral object must not be understood as "a process or an event of the merely physical order," John Paul's primary target was revisionist theory, which inherited what might be called "a physical understanding of the moral object" from the post-Tridentine casuist
Poliglotta Vaticana, 1962; 106-156), will enable historians to track the widely-circulated views of this leading casuist
and ecclesiastical judge.
True to the casuist
method (which he briefly describes in an appendix), he investigates each case from as many angles as feasible and suggests responses that might have been justified.
In an inverse way, it also lies behind much of the logic of the casuist
tradition in its attempts to minimize the final attribution of personal responsibility for a particular moral fault.