catabolism

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catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
One randomized clinical study found that intensive insulin therapy significantly decreased the incidence of infections and sepsis, improved organ function, remedied insulin resistance, and reversed the posttraumatic catabolic state and, euglycemia within a reasonable range decreases morbidity and healing time in the postoperative patient.
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare metabolic, autosomal recessive disorder in the phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolic pathway that is characterized by the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA; homogentisic aciduria) in the body, especially in the connective tissues (cartilage, tendons, and ligaments) (1) Alkaptonuria is caused by mutations in the homogetisate 1.
MT-102 is a dual action Anabolic Catabolic Transforming Agent (ACTA) in phase II clinical development for the treatment of cachexia and sarcopenia.
Extremely premature infants require 400 mg/kg per day because of negligible tissue stores of zinc, low albumin binding, increased catabolic state, and increased urinary zinc losses (1).
Catabolic desires are destructive in their nature and they consume a great amount of energy to leave an individual completely exhausted and depleted.
Typically patients are far more likely to decompensate when the affected pathway is stressed during major catabolic episodes as seen with inter-current infections, or the early neonatal transition to extra-uterine life, or if the child is fed the compounds that they are unable to metabolise.
Writing not only for professionals in the field of biomass and biofuels but also for academic audiences such as graduate and postgraduate students and researchers, Kubicek (biotechnology and microbiology, Vienna U of Technology) examines particulars of plant biomass such as structural, physical, and physicochemical properties of plant cell walls; plant biomass degradation by fungi; the enzymologies of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignan degradation; catabolic pathways of soluble degradation products; enzyme formation regulation; the correlation between fungal secretory pathways and lignocellulose degradation; the production of cellulases and hemicellulases by fungi and the production of fermentable sugars from lignocelluloses; and lignocellulose biorefinery.
Most identified SPOB degrade propionate through methylmalonyl coenzyme A pathway (MMC) pathway and genomic information indicated the catabolic pathways are controlled by ecological factors and/or global cellular conditions.
IV fluids provide limited calories and no lipids or proteins, which can lead to a catabolic state during a time of increased nutritional needs.
By rotating your carb intake you'll be switching your body between two states, catabolic (breaking down) and anabolic (building up).
It turned out that he was exhausting his muscles into a catabolic phase, meaning that his body was breaking down his muscle to use for energy.
The bone remodeling characteristic of RA is a catabolic process marked by focal bony erosions and osteopenia.