catabolism

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catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
Any process by which we conserve and build up our energy is anabolic and any process by which we exhaust and deplete our energy and become weak is catabolic.
Glutaric aciduria type 1 is the most common OA in South Africa and is caused by AR deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), a critical enzyme in the infantile neuronal lysine catabolic pathway.
5) Based on these metabolic considerations, women would want to watch their starch/sugar intake during the luteal phase and minimize more catabolic forms of exercise.
The arginine catabolic mobile element and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec linkage: convergence of virulence and resistance in the USA300 clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
All 25 substrates applied to soil were utilised by the microbial community, indicating a similar catabolic richness between land uses.
Tabulated are the ten important biological functions with the greatest statistical significance for enrichment in the collected proteome data set of the human sperm (GOTERM: level ALL) Biological functions % P-value Catabolic processes 16 1.
Catabolic cytokines induce target cells to produce more matrix-degrading products.
Production of protease by fermentation in homogeneous system inhibited by product inhibition and catabolic repression as cells and product formation takes place in a single phase [3].
In the present study, we determined serum levels of C3d, which is a catabolic fragment of C3, to further evaluate the possibility of the involvement of complement system in TPE.
Razia in her research has come up with some mind opening facts including the catabolic and toxic effects of the excessive nitrate and nitrite contents in drinking water of Peshawar valley.
It was proposed that catabolic processes could increase serum iron levels due to the release of endogenous iron from tissues.
Microbiota incubated for a 2-week period in pyrene (line 3) showed the presence of band 2 and more predominance of band 4, suggesting facility to grown and survive into the medium when supplied with these nutrients, showing certain dependence to the production and activation of catabolic enzymes responsible for degradation of pyrene.