catabolism

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catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
An important function of the kidneys is to re-absorb and catabolize small proteins, such as free light chains.
The metabolite, or waste product, of serotonin is produced by the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO) and aldehyde oxidase, which together catabolize serotonin to the waste metabolite 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA), which is excreted via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the blood.
However, in situations of dietary carbohydrate starvation, gut bacteria catabolize mucins in the gastrointestinal tract as a carbohydrate source, thereby potentially compromising the mucus layer adjacent to the epithelium.
light chains escape glomerular charge and size barriers and overwhelm tubular capacity to reabsorb and catabolize them.
It is believed that, through exudate enrichment of soil contaminated with large toxic compounds, root exudate can stimulate growth of subset populations of resident bacteria that catabolize toxins such as PAH to harmless materials used by the plant.
3]-N concentration between T1 and T2 suggests that proteolytic microbes may catabolize the proteinaceous substances in the MRS medium added to these treatment groups.
This distinction is fundamental in cephalopods, because they digest lipids poorly and their capacity to catabolize them is limited (Navarro & Villanueva 2000, Garcia Garcia & Aguado Gimenez 2002).
2005); or c) that PPAR[alpha]-null mice expressing the human PPAR[alpha] in the liver respond to PPAR[alpha] agonists by increasing expression of genes encoding proteins that catabolize lipids, but they fail to show increases in markers of cell proliferation and are resistant to liver cancer (Cheung et al.