catabolism

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catabolism

(kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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 involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. Large polymeric molecules such as polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins are first split into their constituent monomeric units, such as amino acids, after which the monomers themselves can be broken down into such simple cellular metabolites as lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. The first set of reactions provides the cell with monomers with which it can construct new polymeric molecules. The second set of reactions usually involves the process of oxidation and is accompanied by a release of chemical free energy, not all of which is lost as heat, but is partially conserved through the coupled synthesis of adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. The hydrolysis of this compound is subsequently used to drive almost every energy-requiring reaction in the cell. Thus catabolism also provides the source of chemical energy necessary for the maintenance of the living cell.

Catabolism

 

a set of chemical processes constituting the reverse of anabolism.

Catabolic processes are directed toward splitting the complexcompounds that form the structural elements of organs andtissues (proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids) or that are depos-ited in the organs and tissues as reserve material (fat, glycogen).As a result of catabolism, complex compounds lose their specificproperties and are converted to substances that are partly uti-lized for biosynthesis and partly eliminated from the body (inter-mediate and final products of metabolism).

catabolism

[kə′tab·ə‚liz·əm]
(biochemistry)
That part of metabolism concerned with the breakdown of large protoplasmic molecules and tissues, often with the liberation of energy.

catabolism

, katabolism
a metabolic process in which complex molecules are broken down into simple ones with the release of energy; destructive metabolism
References in periodicals archive ?
In general, these proteins are freely filtered by the glomerulus, reabsorbed and catabolized, but not secreted by the renal tubules.
This 13-kDa protein exhibits favorable characteristics for a renal biomarker since it is freely filtrated by the glomerulus, nearly completely reabsorbed and catabolized in the proximal tubule, and subsequently does not return to the blood (1, 3).
5FU is initially catabolized to 5-fluorodihydrouracil by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) mainly in the liver.
Judging from a large increase of ammonia excretion in rainbow trout after being fed a high protein diet, Brett and Zala (1975) suggested that the excess dietary amino acid was rapidly catabolized by the liver.
In humans the greater part of VLDL-cholesterol is converted to LDL-Cholesterol, but in rats it has been reported that 80 to 90% of VLDL-C is catabolized by the liver and only 5 to 15% is converted to LDLC (J Biochem 93(4):1071-77, 1983).
The reserves may, for example, be catabolized to support maintenance metabolism when food is scarce and/or for the production of gametes, depending on the timing of gametogenesis in relation to seasonal food supply (Barber & Blake 2006).
CdMT is preferentially taken up by the kidney, and the MT is catabolized by lysosomes, releasing the free [Cd.
Sucrose, when supplemented into a medium, is catabolized into the monosaccharides glucose and fructose by extracellular enzymes released during the in vitro culture, hence providing readily available nutrients for the explant [24,76].
ATR is catabolized by plants, microbes, and animals to yield four major metabolites (Figure 1): hydroxyatrazine (HA; 6-hydroxy-N-ethyl-N'-isopropyl-[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine), diaminochlorotriazine (DACT; 6-chloro[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine), deisopropylatrazine (DIA; 6-chloro-N-ethyl-[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine), and deethylatrazine (DEA; 6-chloro-N-isopropyl-[1,3,5]triazine-2,4-diamine).
LDL is formed from very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and is catabolized predominantly by the high-affinity LDL receptor.
Haider and Martin (1975) reported that 14C-labeled benzoic and cinnamic acids were aerobically catabolized within two weeks of entering the soil.
Fructose must be catabolized in the liver before it can enter circulation through the blood and contribute to glycogen synthesis within skeletal muscle.