It is unclear why cue-induced craving fails to activate the thalamus, because both drug-induced and cue-induced craving are associated with activity changes in the anterior cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus
, amygdala, and orbital cortices.
In addition to its role in anticipating reward, the caudate nucleus
is involved in helping people learn classifications.
Located in the centre of the brain, the caudate nucleus
is a double structure straddling the thalamus in both hemispheres.
The feedback contrast (positive minus negative) predominantly showed clusters in the caudate nucleus
, putamen, and thalamus.
Major Finding: Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment showed underrecruitment in the right dorsal caudate nucleus
Striatum: A part of the brain that is involved in the planning of movement pathways as well as in other cognitive processes; in humans the striatum is activated by stimuli associated with reward, but also aversive, novel, unexpected, or particularly intense stimuli with high salience; includes several nuclei, including the caudate nucleus
published an article that investigated a familial language disorder, a verbal apraxia, linked to a bilateral reduction in the size of affected individuals' caudate nucleus
Transcaudate: genu corpus callosum, cavum septi pellucidi, frontal horn of lateral ventricles, caudate nucleus
, Sylvian sulcus
Autopsy studies of patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) demonstrate damage to the deep white matter areas involved in sub-cortical dementia (including the caudate nucleus
and basal ganglia).
Methods: Different neuroanatomical areas including frontal cortex (FC), cerebellum (CB), caudate nucleus
(CD) and substantia nigra (SN) from autopsy human brains (n=9) with varying PMI (4-18 h) were analyzed for pH, protein insolubility, protein oxidation/nitration and protein expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synatophysin and neurofilament (NF).
Using a brain scanner, the scientists were able to monitor activity in the caudate nucleus
of the brain and confirm that when a woman sees her own face without make-up, she anticipates how she will eventually appear to others and a 'reward' is activated, releasing dopamine to give sensations of pleasure.
Interestingly, the degree of atrophic change is associated with HIV concentration in discrete areas of the brain  and atrophy is reported to be predominant in the caudate nucleus