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a. a ground for legal action; matter giving rise to a lawsuit
b. the lawsuit itself
2. (in the philosophy of Aristotle) any of four requirements for a thing's coming to be, namely material (material cause), its nature (formal cause), an agent (efficient cause), and a purpose (final cause)


any immediate, or more indirect, factor precipitating an outcome. See also CAUSALITY AND CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP.



a phenomenon that directly determines or gives rise to another phenomenon, the effect. In the real world all phenomena and processes are in a state of universal connection and interaction. The concept of “cause” presupposes the singling out of a particular group of phenomena or a system, within the framework of which a causal relation is established between particular phenomena and processes.

Every phenomenon is grounded in several others and is determined by them, its causes. In the process of cognition the researcher inevitably goes beyond the mere description of facts and turns to an investigation of the laws of their origin, development, and functioning, seeking the causes that determine the corresponding properties of a particular object. The movement of thought from description to causal explanation is the movement of cognition from outer to inner, from phenomenon to essence.

As the basis and essence of the effect, the cause functions as the originating and determining element in the relationship between phenomena. The interconnection and mutual conditioning of phenomena take an innumerable variety of forms. Accordingly, the types of causes are extremely diverse. In modern science causes are classified by the most varied criteria. Thus, depending on the nature of the causal relations, causes are classified as ideal and material, informational and energetic (energeticheskie), dynamic and statistical, simple and compound, single-factor and multiple-factor, systemic and nonsystemic, external and internal, primary and nonprimary, objective and subjective, and so on.

It is customary to distinguish the cause from the circumstances of its operation. In the social sciences, causes are distinguished from reasons—the processes contributing to the formation and manifestation of causes. Consideration of the diversity of phenomena gives rise to the conception of causality as a fundamental feature of reality.



Actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combination thereof, which led to the accident or incident investigation (ICAO).
References in periodicals archive ?
However, whether perchlorate exposure caused the observed TSH effect cannot be addressed because of the lack of direct perchlorate measurement in the study.
It was assumed that the defect was caused by a piece of core sand on the mold face that had burned, giving off gas in a localized area.
Since cold sores are caused by a virus and are considered a medical condition, your doctor actually can help.
Several methods are available to treat erectile dysfunction caused by neuropathy, including taking oral drugs, using a mechanical vacuum device, or injecting a drug called a vasodilator into the penis before sex.
Influenza, or the flu, is a respiratory infection caused by a variety of flu viruses.
Like tetanus, it is caused by the toxin, or poison, of a bacterium, but it can spread from an infected person to the nose or throat of others.
This association provides information and support to women who have vulvovaginal pain, including pain caused by lichen sclerosus.
Spinal cord injuries caused by violence are a catastrophic by-product of this culture.
Ashford, who for decades has been an environmental activist focusing on harms caused by chemical exposures.
Patellar chondromalacia may be caused by trauma such as a single or repeated impact to the kneecap, seen especially in male dancers who do knee drops.
In general, ventricular arrhythmias caused by heart disease are the most serious.
They could be caused by a head injury, poor nutrition, or environmental events, such as exposure to lead paint.