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a. a ground for legal action; matter giving rise to a lawsuit
b. the lawsuit itself
2. (in the philosophy of Aristotle) any of four requirements for a thing's coming to be, namely material (material cause), its nature (formal cause), an agent (efficient cause), and a purpose (final cause)


any immediate, or more indirect, factor precipitating an outcome. See also CAUSALITY AND CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP.



a phenomenon that directly determines or gives rise to another phenomenon, the effect. In the real world all phenomena and processes are in a state of universal connection and interaction. The concept of “cause” presupposes the singling out of a particular group of phenomena or a system, within the framework of which a causal relation is established between particular phenomena and processes.

Every phenomenon is grounded in several others and is determined by them, its causes. In the process of cognition the researcher inevitably goes beyond the mere description of facts and turns to an investigation of the laws of their origin, development, and functioning, seeking the causes that determine the corresponding properties of a particular object. The movement of thought from description to causal explanation is the movement of cognition from outer to inner, from phenomenon to essence.

As the basis and essence of the effect, the cause functions as the originating and determining element in the relationship between phenomena. The interconnection and mutual conditioning of phenomena take an innumerable variety of forms. Accordingly, the types of causes are extremely diverse. In modern science causes are classified by the most varied criteria. Thus, depending on the nature of the causal relations, causes are classified as ideal and material, informational and energetic (energeticheskie), dynamic and statistical, simple and compound, single-factor and multiple-factor, systemic and nonsystemic, external and internal, primary and nonprimary, objective and subjective, and so on.

It is customary to distinguish the cause from the circumstances of its operation. In the social sciences, causes are distinguished from reasons—the processes contributing to the formation and manifestation of causes. Consideration of the diversity of phenomena gives rise to the conception of causality as a fundamental feature of reality.



Actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combination thereof, which led to the accident or incident investigation (ICAO).
References in periodicals archive ?
3]) Inactivating mutations in both TPO alleles have been found in patients with CH caused by TIOD.
This caused the sand to settle on the cope surface of the castings, thus causing the porosity.
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Influenza, or the flu, is a respiratory infection caused by a variety of flu viruses.
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This association provides information and support to women who have vulvovaginal pain, including pain caused by lichen sclerosus.
Of all homicides, more than 50 percent of the victims knew their assailants; 47 percent of homicides are caused by arguments, whereas only 15 percent occur during the commission of another crime (Prothrow-Stith, 1990).
People who believe MCS is real generally describe it as a breakdown of the immune or nervous system caused by an overload of offending agents.
Patellar chondromalacia may be caused by trauma such as a single or repeated impact to the kneecap, seen especially in male dancers who do knee drops.
In general, ventricular arrhythmias caused by heart disease are the most serious.