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cave,a cavity in the earth's surface usually large enough for a person to enter. Caves may be formed by the chemical and mechanical action of a stream upon soluble or soft rock, of rainwater seeping through soluble rock to the groundwater level, or of waves dashed against a rocky shore. Volcanic action (accompanied by the formation of gas pockets in lava or the melting of ice under lava) and earthquakes or other earth movements are also sources of cave formation. Limestone regions almost invariably have caves; some of these are notable for their stalactite and stalagmitestalactite and stalagmite
, mineral forms often found in caves; sometimes collectively called dripstone. A stalactite is an icicle-shaped mass of calcite attached to the roof of a limestone cavern.
..... Click the link for more information. formations or for their magnitude and beauty.
The preserved remains of prehistoric humans and animals and indications of early human culture have been discovered in some caves. Caves have served as burial grounds and shelter since prehistoric times. One such cave is Alabama's Russell Cave, where human evidence dates back 9,000 years. Speleology, the scientific study of caves and their plant and animal life, contributes to knowledge of biological adaptation and evolution. Some cave animals lack sight, and both plants and animals living where light is excluded show loss of pigment. Deep cave ecosystems, lacking the sunlight necessary for photosynthesis, depend on bacteria that use chemosynthesischemosynthesis,
process in which carbohydrates are manufactured from carbon dioxide and water using chemical nutrients as the energy source, rather than the sunlight used for energy in photosynthesis. Much life on earth is fueled directly or indirectly by sunlight.
..... Click the link for more information. to create energy.
Among famous caves in the United States are Carlsbad Caverns National Park (N.Mex.), Mammoth Cave National Park (Ky.), Wind Cave National Park (Black Hills, S.Dak.), Luray Caverns (Va.), and Wyandotte Cave (Ind.). In Europe there are celebrated caves in Belgium, Dalmatia, Gibraltar, Capri, Sicily, Postojna, and England (Kent's Cavern and Kirkdale). The caves of the Pyrenees and the Dordogne are famed for their prehistoric paintings (see Paleolithic artPaleolithic art
, art produce during the Paleolithic period. Present study and knowledge of this art has been largely confined to works discovered at more than 150 sites in W Europe, particularly to the magnificent cave paintings in N Spain and the Dordogne valley of SW France.
..... Click the link for more information. ), and those of Ajanta, India, and Dunhuang, China, for their Buddhist frescoes. Among the deepest known caves are Krubera in the nation of Georgia, which extends more than 6,500 ft (2,000 m) below the surface, and Lamprechtsofen in Austria.
See C. E. Mohr and T. L. Poulson, The Life of the Cave (1966); D. R. McClurg, The Amateur's Guide to Caves and Caving (1973).
a large cavity in the upper layers of the earth’s crust having openings that connect it to the surface of the earth. Caves are formed in many ways. Karst caves result from the leaching and erosion of such water-soluble rocks as limestones, dolomites, and gypsums. Others are formed as a result of the suffusion and underground erosion of weathered cracks (“clay pseudokarst”). Caves may be formed by abrasion, the deflation of particles resulting from the weathering of hard rocks, the formation of open tectonic cracks, and the uneven deposition of certain geological formations (for example, travertines). Lava caves form when the solidified crust of a lava flow ruptures and the fluid lava underneath flows out. Ice caves, or grottoes, form as a result of the thawing of ice.
The largest caves are karst caves, which consist of intricate systems of passages and halls. Their total length is usually several dozen kilometers. Karst caves, particularly those of limestone, frequently have various types of colored dripstone and sinter formations, including stalactites, stalagmites, columns, and curtains. They also are characterized by underground streams, rivers, and lakes.
Caves may be horizontal or may drop down steeply. Some consist of more or less horizontal cavities that alternate with steep and vertical underground passages descending to great depths. The deepest karst chasms in the world are the Pierre St. Martin Cave (1,171 m) and the Puits Berger (1,141 m), both of which are in France. Multistory caves occur frequently.
The climatic regime of a cave depends on whether the cavity is directed upward from the entrance (warm caves) or downward (cold saclike caves). A cave may also have two outlets, providing good ventilation. Saclike caves and caves with through circulation have ice formations, such as crystals and icicles, year-round. Such caves are called ice caves (the Kungur Cave in the Ural region and the Balagansk Cave in the Angara River region).
Caves are characterized by a unique fauna, some representatives of which are also found outside caves under similar conditions. Some caves were used as human dwellings during the Stone Age. Tools and the bones of extinct animals and primitive humans have been found in such caves. There are also drawings and paintings on the walls and ceilings. Stone Age caves include the Altamira Cave and the Kapova Cave. Speleology is the comprehensive study of caves. Many of the world’s caves are tourist attactions.
REFERENCESGvozdetskii, N. A. Problemy izucheniia karsta i praktika. Moscow, 1972.
Gvozdetskii, N. A. “Noveishie dannye o razmerakh samykh krupnykh karstovykh polostei mira i SSSR.” Vestn. MGU: Ser. geogr., 1973, no. 5.
Maksimovich, G. A. Osnovy karstovedeniia, vol. 1. Perm’, 1963.
Chikishev, A. G. Peshchery na territorii SSSR. Moscow, 1973.
N. A. GVOZDETSKII
What does it mean when you dream about a cave?
Caves often represent a place to hide or seek refuge. Coming out of a cave may mean the emergence of the self. A cave may also symbolize the womb, childbearing, new life, contemplation, or creativity. (See also Hole, Pit).
CAVE(Computer Automatic Virtual Environment) A virtual reality system that uses projectors to display images on three or four walls and the floor. Special glasses make everything appear as 3D images and also track the path of the user's vision.
CAVE was the first virtual reality system to let multiple users participate in the experience simultaneously. Known as a "spatially immersive display," it was developed by the Electronic Visualization Laboratory at the University of Illinois in the early 1990s. See head mounted display and virtual reality.
|Simulating New Architecture|
|CAVE is used to simulate a newly designed train station to evaluate its functionality. (Image courtesy of Fakespace Systems Inc.)|
|This CAVE system teaches people how to operate a Caterpillar bulldozer. The steering wheel on the left meets the real steering wheel in virtual space, appearing to the man as the actual wheel he is turning. (Image courtesy of Fakespace Systems Inc.)|