centrifugal pump


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centrifugal pump

[‚sen′trif·i·gəl ′pəmp]
(mechanical engineering)
A machine for moving a liquid, such as water, by accelerating it radially outward in an impeller to a surrounding volute casing.

Centrifugal pump

A machine for moving fluid by accelerating it radially outward. More fluid is moved by centrifugal pumps than by all other types combined. Centrifugal pumps consist basically of one or more rotating impellers in a stationary casing which guides the fluid to and from the impeller or from one impeller to the next in the case of multistage pumps. Impellers may be single suction or double suction. Additional essential parts of all centrifugal pumps are (1) wearing surfaces or rings, which make a close-clearance running joint between the impeller and the casing to minimize the backflow of fluid from the discharge to the suction; (2) the shaft, which supports and drives the impeller; and (3) the stuffing box or seal, which prevents leakage between shaft and casing.

The rotating impeller imparts pressure and kinetic energy to the fluid pumped. A collection chamber in the casing converts much of the kinetic energy into head or pressure energy before the fluid leaves the pump. A free passage exists at all times through the impeller between the discharge and inlet side of the pump. Rotation of the impeller is required to prevent back-flow or draining of fluid from the pump. Because of this, only special forms of centrifugal pumps are self-priming. Most types must be filled with liquid, or primed, before they are started.

Every centrifugal pump has its characteristic curve, which is the relation between capacity or rate of flow and pressure or head against which it will pump. At zero pressure-difference, maximum capacity is obtained, but without useful work. As resistance to flow external to the pump increases, capacity decreases until, at a high pressure, flow ceases entirely. This is called shut-off head and again no useful work is done. Between these extremes, capacity and head vary in a fixed relationship at constant rpm. When the required head exceeds that practical for a single-stage pump, several stages are employed. Multistage pumps range from two-stage pumps to pumps built with as many as 20 or 30 stages for high lifts from relatively small-diameter wells. See Pump, Pumping machinery

centrifugal pump

centrifugal pump
A pump in which the pressure is imparted to the fluid by centrifugal force produced by a rotating impeller.

centrifugal pump

Any pump that uses a high-speed impeller to throw the fluid outward by centrifugal action.
References in periodicals archive ?
Influence of the empirical coefficients of cavitation model on predicting cavitating flow in the centrifugal pump, International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering 6: 119-131.
com)-- Refurbishing of ageing manufacturing plants and pumping systems, combined with increasing exploration activities for new sources of water is driving global demand for centrifugal pumps.
Centrifugal pumps will continue to be the most commonly used pump design due to their varied pressure and load handling capabilities -- including the ability to handle liquids with high solids content -- and relatively low maintenance costs.
The calculation of annual energy consumption for centrifugal pumps of various designs was carried out during the analysis of the calculated proportional pressure control mode with the certain declinations of pump control curves (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) (WinCAPS 2011; WiloSelect 2010) (Figure 5).
Application Data: Applications for the PumPac 8000 Series include centrifugal pumps, large vertical electric motors, compressors, centrifuges, and others subject to thrust loads while operating at relatively high speeds.
Hot-oil systems heat up to 500 F with 12 to 48 kw and have centrifugal pumps of 1 to 7.
Waukesha Cherry-Burrell, a unit of SPX Corporation, is a major supplier of component equipment including positive displacement and centrifugal pumps, single seat and mix-proof valves, tubular fittings, and Scrape Surface heat exchangers.
Gwynne constructed a multistage centrifugal pump in 1849 and began the first systematic examination of these pumps.
The users were confronted to the problematic of design of the centrifugal pump components.
com)-- China's centrifugal pump market in China is worth approximately RMB 30 Bn as of year-end 2011, according to a recent report by GCiS China Strategic Research.