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Related to centromeric: kinetochore, telocentric chromosome


(cell and molecular biology)
A specialized chromomere to which the spindle fibers are attached during mitosis. Also known as kinetochore; kinomere; primary constriction.



a part of a chromosome that plays a fundamental role in its movement during cell division (mitosis). In the metaphase stage of mitosis, the area of the centromere within the chromosome is less dense than the chromosome’s other areas and forms a primary constriction that divides the chromosome into two sections; the position of this constriction is a basis for the classification of chromosomes. The cytoplasmic filaments (microtubules) of the spindle of cell division are attached to the centromere by their ends.

Some organisms, such as members of the genus Luzula and the scorpion, have polycentromeric chromosomes with a diffuse centromere and with the spindle filaments attached to the chromosome along its entire length. With a light microscope a cluster of chromomeres may be seen near the centromere of a chromosome during metaphase. Examination of mammalian cells with an electron microscope reveals a three-layered structure near each of the two longitudinal chromosome filaments, or chromatids. This structure is a kinetochore plate, whose interaction with the spindle filaments results in the even distribution of chromosomes among the daughter cells during cell division. Chromosomal aberrations involving the chromomere hamper the distribution of chromosomal material during mitosis and meiosis and alter the organism’s karyotype. Chromosomes that lack a centromere cannot take part in mitosis.


References in periodicals archive ?
In the present study, the C-banding technique indicated the existence of a small amount of heterochromatin on the chromosomes of the Atta species, with a distribution pattern in the centromeric region.
DNA content and DNA-based centromeric index of the 24 human chromosomes.
Phosphoserines on maize CENTROMERIC HISTONE H3 and histone H3 demarcate the centromere and pericentromere during chromosome segregation.
Centromeric index (Ci) was calculated by dividing 100 times the length of the short arm by the total chromosome length.
The researchers first synthesized arrays of alpha satellite DNA, then introduced the resulting centromeric material into human cells in conjunction with telomeres and genomic DNA.
Chromosomes in sedges and other organisms that undergo post-reductional meiosis are holocentric, meaning that centromeric activity is distributed along the entire chromosome (Hakansson, 1954).
2006) observed that the region centromeric of the ancestral CYP3A4*1B allele (which is correlated with moderately increased expression of CYP3A4 mRNA and protein and increased activity) exhibits "high haplotype homozygosity in European Caucasians as opposed to African Americans.
Robertsonian translocation involves two acrocentric chromosomes, which fuse at the centromeric region and lose their short arms.
Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was carried out using centromeric probes 5,7, and 8 (Abort, Germany) and locus specific probes 5q33, 7q31-33 (Abort, Germany) according to standard procedure (17).
Five new strategic alliances including ALTERthought, Centromeric, Inc.
9] Human genes: SMN1, survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric; SMN2, survival motor neuron 2, centromeric.
deletions, inversions, centromeric fusion or fissions) are extensively studied and are known to generate karyotypic variation in populations of plants and animals (White 1978, Rieseberg & Willis 2007).