cerebral palsy


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cerebral palsy

(sərē`brəl pôl`zē), disability caused by brain damage before or during birth or in the first years, resulting in a loss of voluntary muscular control and coordination. Although the exact cause is unknown, apparent predisposing factors include disease (e.g., rubellarubella
or German measles,
acute infectious disease of children and young adults. It is caused by a filterable virus that is spread by droplet spray from the respiratory tract of an infected individual.
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, genital herpes simplexherpes simplex
, an acute viral infection of the skin characterized by one or more painful, itching blisters filled with clear fluid. It is caused by either of two herpes simplex viruses: Type 1, herpes labialis,
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), very low infant birthweight (less than 3.3 lb [1.5 kg]), and injury or physical abuse. Maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and ingestion of certain drugs can also contribute. Most cases are associated with prenatal problems; about 10% of the cases are thought to be due to oxygen deficiency during the birth process. The severity of the affliction is dependent on the extent of the brain damage. Those with mild cases may have only a few affected muscles, while severe cases can result in total loss of coordination or paralysis.

There are many different forms of the disability, each caused by damage to a different area of the brain. The spastic type, accounting for over half of the cases, results from damage to the motor areas of the cerebral cortex and causes the affected muscles to be contracted and overresponsive to stimuli. Athetoid cerebral palsy, caused by damage to the basal ganglia, results in continual, involuntary writhing movements. Choreic cerebral palsy is characterized by jerking, flailing movements. Ataxic cerebral palsy, involving the cerebellum, causes either an impaired sense of balance or a lack of coordinated movements. In addition to these types, which may occur singly or together, emotional, visual, and hearing impairments and convulsive seizures may be present. Some of those affected have a degree of mental retardation, but in many the intellect is unimpaired.

There is no cure for the disorder. Treatment usually includes physical, occupational, and speech therapy, and sometimes includes biofeedback and muscle relaxants. Sometimes appliances such as braces and surgery are helpful. Measures that appear to help decrease the incidence of cerebral palsy include maternal immunization against rubella, maternal abstention from smoking and alcohol consumption, magnesium sulfate given in premature labor, treatment for Rh incompatibility (see blood groupsblood groups,
differentiation of blood by type, classified according to immunological (antigenic) properties, which are determined by specific substances on the surface of red blood cells.
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), and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia (jaundicejaundice
, abnormal condition in which the body fluids and tissues, particularly the skin and eyes, take on a yellowish color as a result of an excess of bilirubin. During the normal breakdown of old erythrocytes (red blood cells), their hemoglobin is converted into bilirubin.
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) in the newborn.

cerebral palsy

[sə′rē·brəl ′pȯl·zē]
(medicine)
Any nonprogressive motor disorder in humans caused by brain damage incurred during fetal development.

cerebral palsy

a nonprogressive impairment of muscular function and weakness of the limbs, caused by lack of oxygen to the brain immediately after birth, brain injury during birth, or viral infection
References in periodicals archive ?
Twenty-three of the 27 children (85 percent) with cerebral palsy also had windswept hips, a hallmark feature in CP patients marked by one hip facing outward and the other one rotated inward.
Ataxic cerebral palsy, in which the child has problems with balance and coordination.
Although the cause of cerebral palsy is unknown in most cases, a lack of oxygen to a fetus has long been the chief suspect.
If Francesca looks strangely familiar then it is because she played Rachel Burns, a character with cerebral palsy, in BBC1's children's TV Series Grange Hill for four years from 1994.
The researchers calculated that magnesium sulfate reduced the prevalence of cerebral palsy by about 90 percent and reduced the prevalence of mental retardation by about 70 percent, although the latter link was weaker.
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Cerebral palsy is a catch-all term for brain damage that manifests itself in various mobility and cognition problems.
The children in German Friends School learn about cerebral palsy from a medical doctor, participate in a simulation experience by visiting a public mall in wheelchairs and prepare their schoolmates for the performance by sharing what they have learned about cerebral palsy and their partners.
Global Markets Direct's, 'Cerebral Palsy - Pipeline Review, H1 2012', provides an overview of the Cerebral Palsy therapeutic pipeline.
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Simon Jones, who has cerebral palsy, will do the event at Moseley Road Baths on August 15.

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