Lymphadenitis

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lymphadenitis

[‚lim‚fad·ən′īd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of lymph nodes.

Lymphadenitis

 

inflammation of the lymph nodes.

Lymphadenitis arises as a result of the entry with the lymph into the lymph nodes of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins, products of tissue decomposition, or tiny foreign bodies. The condition is observed with acute and chronic local inflammatory processes (an infected wound, furuncle, ulcer, dental caries) and generalized infectious diseases and is manifested by enlargement and tenderness of the lymph nodes.

Depending on the causative agent and the character of the inflammation, lymphadenitis is classified as simple (catarrhal), purulent, hemorrhagic (for example, with anthrax), or hyper-plastic (with proliferation of the cellular elements of the node). It is classified as either acute or chronic, according to the course of the disease. Acute lymphadenitis begins with pain in the region of the affected nodes and enlargement of the nodes. With acute purulent lymphadenitis, the pain is severe. The nodes can barely move, surrounded by a painful infiltrate (a result of the involvement of surrounding tissues in the process, or periadenitis). The patient’s body temperature rises and his appetite is lost. The nodes may dissolve with the formation of an abscess. Without treatment, the pus either breaks through to the exterior or penetrates deeper, inflaming new tissues (adenophlegmon). Thrombophlebitis is possible.

Chronic lymphadenitis is characterized by enlargement, induration, and decreased mobility of the lymph nodes. Chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis develops under the influence of mild infection. Chronic specific lymphadenitis develops in connection with tuberculosis, syphilis, or other chronic infections.

Lymphadenitis is treated by eliminating the condition’s primary inflammatory focus or cause and by physical therapy, antibiotics, and novocaine blockade. Some cases require surgery.

IA. O. OL’SHANSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Cervical lymphadenitis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in immunocompetent children: clinical and therapeutic experience.
Management of nontuberculous mycobacteria-induced cervical lymphadenitis with observation alone.
Mycobacterium bohemieum--a cause of paediatric cervical lymphadenitis.
Characteristics of 4 children with cervical lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium bohemicum, Austria, 2002-2006 * Patient no.
Most reports describe isolates from cervical lymphadenitis of very young children (3-9); other anatomic sites are less frequently implicated (1,7,8).
Mycobacterium lentiflavum: an etiological agent of cervical lymphadenitis.
One well-documented case of acute Q fever with necrotic cervical lymphadenitis has been recently reported (8); to our knowledge, granulomatous lymphadenitis has never been reported during Q fever.
A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities.
On March 22, 2000, a public health physician in western Kosovo reported a cluster of patients with an unusual syndrome of fever, pharyngitis, and pronounced cervical lymphadenitis.