Examples of such policies are forcing pregnant woman to undergo invasive medical treatment that might prevent fetal harm or mandating cesarian section
in cases where vaginal birth would create substantial risk of harm to a newborn [146-163].
We accept, for example, a two-fold difference in the incidence of prostatic surgery in two neighboring counties in Vermont, a one-and-one-half-fold difference in cesarian section
rates between two hospitals or even two physicians, and a two- to three-fold difference in mortality rates among cardiac surgeons.
Nurses rendering such care and treatment have a responsibility to notify attending physicians and other health care providers that a particular patient may he a potential candidate for a cesarian section
, if in their judgement there there is a sound basis for alerting all care, givers, as well as the patient that the patient may be a candidate for a cesarian section
7] In the State of Maine, obstetricians, when they were advised that their cesarian section
rates deviated from the mean, made efforts to adjust their practices to the mean.
Given the high percentage of cesarian sections
performed in this country--25 percent of all births--it is also quite possible that this method of delivery has been broached as a possibility in any case.
Then, in May 2002, the results of two important clinical studies were announced -- one showing a 40% reduction in morphine use after surgery in women undergoing cesarian sections
, the other showing significantly shorter hospital stays and reduced overall costs in hysterectomy patients," Earhart said.