3H), whereas the three antipodal cells at the chalazal
end were ephemeral and degenerated soon after fertilization.
For Werker (1997) both integuments of Dalechampia may be vascularized (the vascular bundles branch to the tegmen from the chalazal
Near the end of free nuclear development of the functional female gametophyte, a small and distinctive chalazal
region differentiates [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 3F-H OMITTED].
Usually near the chalazal
megaspore developed into the functional megaspore while the other three megaspores were eventually degenerated (Fig.
Only one megaspore functions and it is always one of the two larger chalazal
members of the tetrad (Fig.
the number of cell layers in the chalazal
region and the free
intybus, the chalazal
megaspore of the linear- shaped tetrad gives rise to form Polygonum type of embryo sacasdescribedformorethan70%ofangiosperm (Maheshwari, 1950; Batygina, 1987).
Fruit mostly a pair of ventrally dehiscent follicles (often only one due to abortion) (rarely a capsule), with small seeds with a micropylar coma, rarely with a chalazal
coma or ecomose (fruits in Rauvolfioideae drupes, berries, follicles, or capsules; seeds usually ecomose, naked, winged, or arillate).
During the early apomeiotic prophase, vacuoles accumulate in the chalazal
region of the MMC, the nucleus moves to the center of the MMC, and callose, which normally envelops sexual MMCs during meiosis (Rodkiewicz, 1970), is generally absent (restricted to the wall of the MMC closest to the micropyle when present).
squamulatum often formed in either the micropylar or chalazal
half of the MMC (Fig.
Other nucellar and chalazal
structures, such as hypostase, perisperm, and chalazosperm, are regarded as being of some systematic significance in monocotyledons and are used as characters in analyses.
Dyads and triads, including binucleated functional megaspores, were also identified and resulted from the absence of cytokinesis after telophase II in both chalazal
and micropylar cells (Fig.