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(1) Polyphonic songs of the 15th and 16th centuries. The chansons, which were preceded by the ballades, virelays, and rondeaux of Guillaume de Machaut (14th century), were developed by Franco-Flemish composers of the Netherlands school. In the 16th century they took on a strikingly national character and were often imitative and descriptive in nature; at the same time, homophony became more predominant. In this period chansons were written by C. Jannequin, the greatest composer of the French Renaissance, and by such composers as C. Sermisy, P. Moulu, P. Certon, G. Costeley, C. Le Jeune, and C. Goudimel. In the early 17th century the chanson was superseded by the homophonic art song.
(2) Songs of the French music hall of the late 19th and 20th century. The music hall singers—the chansonniers—often themselves compose, or help compose, the music and words of the chansons they perform.
REFERENCESCombarieu, J. Frantsuzskaia muzyka 16 v. Moscow, 1932. (Translated from French.)
Erisman, G. Frantsuzskaia pesnia. Moscow, 1974. (Translated from French.)
Tiersot, J. Istoriia narodnoi pesni vo Frantsii. Moscow, 1975. (Translated from French.)
Expert, H. Les Maitres musiciens de la Renaissance franqaise, vol. 3. Paris, 1900.
Brochón, P. La Chanson franqaise [vols. 1–2.] Paris, 1956–57.
Brown, H. M. Chanson and Madrigal, 1480–1530. Cambridge, Mass., 1964.
V. N. BRIANTSEVA