chapel


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chapel,

subsidiary place of worship. It is either an alcove or chamber within a church, a separate building, or a room set apart for the purpose of worship in a secular building. A movable shrine containing the cappa, or cloak, of St. MartinMartin, Saint,
c.316–397, bishop of Tours. Born a heathen in Pannonia (in modern Hungary), the son of a soldier, he became a convert and refused to fight Christians. He went (c.360) to St. Hilary of Poitiers and built himself a hermitage.
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 was first called a cappella; hence a sanctuary that is not called a church. Though the churches of the early Middle Ages possessed only the single altar of the apse, chapels became necessary with the increase of relics and of devotions at altars sacred to numerous saints. At first they appeared as minor apses, flanking the main apse. After the 10th cent., in order to accommodate the increasing number of pilgrims, a complex series of radiating chapels was developed behind the high altar. In the 13th cent. chapels were added to the side-aisle bays of choir and nave. In England the strongly projecting transepts provided the favored space for a relatively small number of chapels. In France the Lady Chapel (dedicated to the Virgin) is the central chapel of the chevet and is sometimes larger than the others, while in England it occurs directly behind the high altar. Peculiar to English cathedrals are the small chantry chapels, mostly of the 14th and 15th cent., either built and endowed by individuals for their private Masses or serving to enclose the tombs of bishops and other churchmen. From the early Middle Ages, members of royalty had the right to an independent private chapel. Such are the separate building of the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris; St. George's Chapel at Windsor; and Henry VII's magnificent chapel at Westminster, London. In addition, there were royal mortuary chapels, the most celebrated being that of Charlemagne (796–804), at Aachen, since converted into a cathedral. Numerous lords of medieval castles and manor houses established private chapels, over which episcopal jurisdiction was enforced as completely as possible. The two main chapels at the Vatican are the Pauline Chapel (1540), designed by Antonio da SangalloSangallo
, three Italian Renaissance architects, two brothers and their nephew. Giuliano da Sangallo, 1445–1516, designed the Church of Santa Maria delle Carceri at Prato and palaces in Florence. After Bramante's death Giuliano worked on St.
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 for Paul III, and the Sistine Chapel (1473), built by Sixtus IV and celebrated for its great fresco decorations by MichelangeloMichelangelo Buonarroti
, 1475–1564, Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet, b. Caprese, Tuscany. Early Life and Work

Michelangelo drew extensively as a child, and his father placed him under the tutelage of Ghirlandaio, a respected artist of the day.
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 and other masters. Two of the most famous French modern chapels (built in the 1950s) are the chapel at Vence designed by Henri MatisseMatisse, Henri
, 1869–1954, French painter, sculptor, and lithographer. Along with Picasso, Matisse is considered one of the two foremost artists of the modern period. His contribution to 20th-century art is inestimably great.
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 and the one at Ronchamp by Le CorbusierLe Corbusier
, pseud. of Charles Édouard Jeanneret
, 1887–1965, French architect, b. La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Often known simply as "Corbu," he was one of the most influential architects of the 20th cent.
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; both are freestanding buildings.

Chapel

A small area within a larger church, containing an altar and intended for private prayer; a small secondary church in a parish; a room designated for religious use within the complex of a school, college, or hospital.

Chapel

 

(1) In church architecture (Catholic and Anglican), a small room for preservation of relics, accommodation of choristers, and worship by the members of a notable family. Chapels were located in churches (in the aisles or around the choir), castles, and palaces. They were also built as separate structures (for example, the Sistine Chapel).

(2) A choir of singers. The word initially was used to designate the room in which the choir was originally placed. At first chapels were purely vocal. With the development of instrumental music, they usually became ensembles, including singers and instrumentalists. Prominent composers, such as J. S. Bach and F. J. Haydn, directed chapels. These types of choirs were introduced to Russia in the 18th century and became widespread, primarily on country estates. The composers S. A. Degtiarev, S. I. Davydov, and D. N. Kashin wrote for chapels. The most outstanding was the Imperial Chapel (now the M. I. Glinka Leningrad State Academic Chapel), with which D. S. Bortnian-skii, M. I. Glinka, N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, M. A. Balakirev, A. S. Arenskii, and S. M. Liapunov were affiliated.

In the past many court, theater, and civic orchestras were referred to as chapels. In the USSR this term is used for some instrumental groups (for example, bandore players).


Chapel

 

(chasovnia), in Christian architecture, a small building or structure for prayer without a special place for an altar. Orthodox chapels are usually separate buildings located in cities and villages, on roads, in cemeteries, and elsewhere.

chapel

chapel, 1
1. A small area within a larger church, containing an altar and intended primarily for private prayer.
2. A room or a building designated for religious purposes within the complex of a school, college, hospital, or other institution.
3. A small secondary church in a parish.

chapel

1. a place of Christian worship in a larger building, esp a place set apart, with a separate altar, in a church or cathedral
2. a similar place of worship in or attached to a large house or institution, such as a college, hospital or prison
3. a church subordinate to a parish church
4. in Britain
a. a Nonconformist place of worship
b. Nonconformist religious practices or doctrine
c. (as adjective): he is chapel, but his wife is church
5. (in Scotland) a Roman Catholic church
References in classic literature ?
As he had already told him, he said, there was no chapel in the castle, nor was it needed for what remained to be done, for, as he understood the ceremonial of the order, the whole point of being dubbed a knight lay in the accolade and in the slap on the shoulder, and that could be administered in the middle of a field; and that he had now done all that was needful as to watching the armour, for all requirements were satisfied by a watch of two hours only, while he had been more than four about it.
O'Reilly," said the duke, leading him into the chapel, "look at these diamond studs, and tell me what they are worth apiece.
He knelt down just opposite the chapel in order not to lose sight of his man; and as he had almost forgotten his prayers and had omitted to take a book with him, he made use of his time in gazing at Bazin.
There is something in a chapel and chaplain so much in character with a great house, with one's ideas of what such a household should be
You shall get into the chapel if the abbe is disfrocked for his share in it.
The chapel was already filled with an earnest congregation, and out of them rose the voice of a lecturer, directing them how to worship Giotto, not by tactful valuations, but by the standards of the spirit.
We visited, also, a new chapel, in the midst of the town, which is built around a boulder some twelve feet long by four feet thick; the priests discovered, a few years ago, that the disciples had sat upon this rock to rest, once, when they had walked up from Capernaum.
The marble table, the brocaded gallery had each had their day; it was now the turn of the chapel of Louis XI.
Carey that he might do as he chose, and for his part he thought the Wesleyan Chapel would be an equally suitable place.
Behind the chapel extended, surrounded by two high hedges of hazel, elder and white thorn, and a deep ditch, the little inclosure - uncultivated, though gay in its sterility; because the mosses there grew thick, wild heliotrope and ravenelles there mingled perfumes, while from beneath an ancient chestnut issued a crystal spring, a prisoner in its marble cistern, and on the thyme all around alighted thousands of bees from the neighboring plants, whilst chaffinches and redthroats sang cheerfully among the flower-spangled hedges.
Some time afterward, one Sunday evening during the chapel exercises, a messenger came in and handed the general a telegram.
The Well, as the doctor's instructions had informed me, was behind the chapel.