These contain ground-breaking conducting polymer composite membranes that will allow in-situ tuning of the molecular selectivity for both neutral and charged species
A possible explanation of the behavior of the solvent system under study may be found due to by considering the selective solvation  which occurs when the composition of the solvent components in the neighborhood of the charged species
is different from the composition of 10 wt% of 2-propanol the concentration of the solvent component with higher dielectric constant increases around the charged species
Specific topics include elementary processes of charged species
in plasma, plasma statistics and kinetics of charged particles in plasma, glow discharge, non-equilibrium cold atmosphere pressure discharges, and electron beam plasmas.
One explanation of this phenomenon, based on this initial observation, could be that the multiple charges present on biomolecules created a higher electrical imbalance within the droplet, thus enhancing ejection of gas phase ions when compared with similar droplet stoichiometry for singly charged species
Until recently, only neutral and positively charged species
had been detected.
Anion binding process which involves non-covalent interactions, namely electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions between a receptor and a negatively charged species
, constitute a major challenge as compared to the cation binding.
As previously mentioned, EDI is a process that acts to remove charged species
Optionally, the molecule may be ionised by addition or subtraction of other charged species
Similar to an electron microscope, the LG-2 uses helium ions rather than electrons as the charged species
that probe surfaces.
NTP is created with a high-voltage electrical energy source and is comprised of charged species
(electrons and ions), active chemical species (radicals like ozone) and ultraviolet radiation.
Using the conservation of the charged species
, assuming no chemical reaction, the ionic transport equation can be written as,
One such method is ion exchange, which uses polystyrene-based resins containing positively charged sites to remove negatively charged species