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primitive methods of medical treatment, well-known among all peoples from antiquity and usually accompanied by various rituals.

In the early stages of the development of mankind, quackery was not differentiated from folk medicine and was practiced by sorcerers (healers and veduny}. However, sorcery was under the influence of theurgic (religious) medicine, in which the belief prevailed that illnesses came from evil spirits. In the class society, people came to use sorcerers in the interests of the religious cult. Gradually, sorcery changed into a profession, a means of enrichment for the sorcerers themselves. With the development of community life, sorcery’s content, form, and views changed considerably. Present-day manifestations of sorcery differ according to such factors as territorial and national peculiarities, the character of traditions, the level of general culture, and the extent of the diffusion of religious prejudices.

Ignorantly borrowing the methods of scientific medicine, the sorcerer reduced treatment to crude, sometimes criminal quackery and frequently resorted to primitive instruments and operations (pathological childbirth and abortions). In capitalist countries, the pharmaceutical market is flooded with patent preparations. Proper control for the issuing of such preparations is not exercised by government agencies. These preparations are promoted by shameless advertising created by private owners of companies, Who become both “healers” and salesmen of their own drugs.

In bourgeois states, particularly in colonial countries and those with weakly developed economies, the inaccessibility of medical help for the vast majority of the workers also furthers the development of quackery. Quackery was wide-spread in prerevolutionary Russia, especially in the villages; the inadequacy of medical aid, superstition, and ignorance were conducive to sorcery. In the outlying national regions of imperial Russia, sorcerers—khakims, tabibs, and khetims — abused the confidence of the working people.

In the USSR, thanks to the growth of the culture and material welfare of the people, the broad availability of free qualified medical help, and the development of hygiene education, quackery has no soil on which to grow. The measures of the Soviet state directed at the development of public health care are important in the struggle against quackery, which is most effective when combined with atheistic propaganda. By Soviet law, criminal accountability has been established for the illegal practice of medicine.



inferior doctor; formerly a barber performing dentistry and surgery. [Medicine: Misc.]
Dulcamara, Dr.
offered bad burgundy as panacea for lovelessness. [Ital. Opera: Donizetti, Elixir of Love; EB, 5: 953–954]
Rezio, Dr. Baratarian
court physician; practically starves Sancho Panza in the interest of diet. [Span. Lit.: Don Quixote]
Rock, Dr. Richard
fat, 18th-century quack; professed to cure every imaginable disease. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Handbook, 888]
Sangrado, Dr.
ignorant physician; believed blood not necessary for life. [Fr. Lit.: Gil Blas]
Walker, Dr.
great 18th-century quack, forever advising against disreputable doctors. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Handbook, 888]
References in periodicals archive ?
He is anxious to rule out any suspicion of charlatanism faced with people who are 'prejudiced against a type of research in which nonsense has so often been talked' (Say 1819 [2003a], p.
He structured his arguments on the premise of charlatanism into three categories: 1.
Originally from Holyhead, North Wales, he was on secondment to MI6 from his job as a communications officer at the GCHQ "listening post" in Charlatanism, Gloucester shire.
Savernake and Forty-Five" by Shirley Brooks, with illustrations by John Leech, anticipates the tales of rampant materialism and charlatanism in Dickens' Our Mutual Friend (1864-1865) or Trollope's The Way We Live Now (1874-1875).
Although of course there is also charlatanism and fraud around hypnosis, as happens with parapsychology, it seems to have secured a foothold in academia and clinical practice (psychology, medicine, and dentistry) and has been recognized by major psychological and medical organizations in the US and the UK, among other countries.
The Tunis declaration highlights the need to protect youth against any forms of charlatanism and create an international network to protect youth in cyberspace.
He told parliament: "The regional [GCC] states should know that the US puppet-show to safeguard and create security in the region is nothing but new political charlatanism to prepare the ground to increase their presence".
At the time, critics really took him to task for his supposed charlatanism when it came to directing, but they never understood how totally serious he was about his films.
Whether in the specter of charlatanism or of the Holy Ghost, the terminology of modern Christian healing is haunted by convictions about the limits of what is possible when repairing the body in a biomedical age.
It promotes charlatanism," said Sheikh Abdelfatah, an influential Salafist imam based in Algiers.
Matthew Skelton has done a superior job of portraying the amazing period of the 1780s, when the explorations of empirical science bordered on magical findings and sometimes, charlatanism.
One sponsor of revolution, a slumming lady aristocrat with access to her deceased husband's fortune, maintains in her house, where the conspirators meet in their Geneva exile, an "atmosphere of scandal, occultism, and charlatanism.