charm


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charm,

magical formula or incantationincantation,
set formula, spoken or sung, for the purpose of working magic. An incantation is normally an invocation to beneficent supernatural spirits for aid, protection, or inspiration. It may also serve as a charm or spell to ward off the effects of evil spirits.
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, spoken or sung, for the purpose of securing blessing, good fortune, or immunity from evil. It presupposes a belief in demons or malignant spirits. The formula was frequently inscribed upon an amuletamulet
, object or formula that credulity and superstition have endowed with the power of warding off harmful influences. The use of the amulet to avert danger and to dispel evil has been known in different religions and among diverse peoples.
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, talisman, or trinket to be worn for protection.

Charm

A term used to describe a class of elementary particles. Ordinary atoms of matter consist of a nucleus composed of neutrons and protons and surrounded by electrons. Over the years, however, a host of other particles with unexpected properties have been found, associated with both electrons (leptons) and protons (hadrons). The hadrons number in the hundreds, and can be explained as composites of more fundamental constituents, called quarks. The originally simple situation of having an up quark (u) and a down quark (d) has evolved as several more varieties or flavors have had to be added. These are the strange quark (s) with the additional property or quantum number of strangeness to account for the unexpected characteristics of a family of strange particles; the charm quark (c) possessing charm and no strangeness, to explain the discovery of the J/ψ particles, massive states three times heavier than the proton; and a fifth quark (b) to explain the existence of the even more massive upsilon (γ) particles. See Hadron, Quarks

The members of the family of particles associated with charm fall into two classes: those with hidden charm, where the states are a combination of charm and anticharm quarks (cc), charmonium; and those where the charm property is clearly evident, such as the D+ (cd) meson and &Lgr;c+ (cud) baryon. Although reasonable progress has been made in the study of charmed states, much work remains to be done. See Elementary particle

Charm

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

A talisman or an amulet may be referred to as a charm, as may a Christian rosary or agnes dei. A three-leaf clover is regarded as a lucky charm, as is a rabbit's foot. Charms are objects, but they are also words used in spells, chants and incantations.

In the past, and even today, people will repeat a word, phrase, or verse that they have been told will work as a charm for health, wealth, protection, love or power. They might be spoken in English, Latin or some form of pseudo-magical gibberish, either meaningless or whose meaning has long since been lost.

The Church has had an ambivalent attitude toward charms. In medieval times holy relics and rosaries were blessed and encouraged. Prayers were also recommended. Yet in the seventeenth century, in Scotland, the use of a charm could lead to burning at the stake. Many charms invoked the names of saints, yet the Church warned that only prayers in their standard Catholic form were permissible.

In South America, no one can claim to be a shaman unless they have knowledge of a great many charms. All magical rites are assigned charms which are believed to have great power. The shamans use charms to combat disease, overcome evil, destroy enemies and summon spirits. Although ordinary people may also know charms, those of the shamans are thought to be especially effective.

Similarly, many believe that the charms of Witches are far more effective than any traditional, well-known charms. For example, there are probably hundreds of charms for getting rid of warts. Many of them seem to work. Yet people will place more faith in a charm spoken by a Witch than the very same charm spoken by themselves.

Charm

 

an incantation, in the creative oral tradition of various peoples, a formula of words that, according to superstition, has magical power. In ancient times charms were associated with magical occurrences; later the incantations themselves acquired magical significance. Hunters, fishermen, shepherds, farmers, and tradesmen had their own charms. There were also charms that placed spells on iniquitous judges. Many charms are used as protection from illness. There are numerous love charms that are believed to make people fall in and out of love. Charms reflect various aspects of the economic, social, and spiritual life of the peoples of the world. The artistic poetic quality and rich language of charms establish them as a form of verbal folk art.

REFERENCES

Maikov, L. Velikorusskie zaklinaniia. St. Petersburg, 1869.
Eleonskaia, E. K izucheniiu zagovora i koldovstvci v Rossii. [Moscow] 1917.
Poznanskii, N. Zagovory. Petrograd, 1917.

charm

[chärm]
(particle physics)
A quantum number which has been proposed to account for an apparent lack of symmetry in the behavior of hadrons relative to that of leptons, to explain why certain reactions of elementary particles do not occur, and to account for the longevity of the J-1 and J-2 particles.

charm

Physics an internal quantum number of certain elementary particles, used to explain some scattering experiments

CHARM

(language)
An explicitly parallel programming language based on C, for both shared and nonshared MIMD computers.

ftp://a.cs.uiuc.edu/pub/CHARM.

Mailing list: <charm@cs.uiuc.edu>.

["The CHARM(3.2) Programming Language Manual", UIUC, Dec 1992].
References in classic literature ?
I do not give my sick the mere ink in which a charm is written, but hot and rending drugs which descend and wrestle with the evil.
Cure them if they have fever, but by no means work charms.
These, she thought, must be the charm, so she read the directions carefully and put the Cap upon her head.
This ended the saying of the charm, and they heard a great chattering and flapping of wings, as the band of Winged Monkeys flew up to them.
Hayward found him stupid, but Lawson recognised his charm and was eager to paint him; he was a picturesque figure with his blue eyes, white skin, and curly hair.
Noticeable again, among the whole-plate portraits, is the thoroughly reassuring countenance of Steele, the singularly fine heads of John, Charles, and Fanny Kemble, while the certainly plain, pinched countenance of William Davenant reminds one of Charles Kean, and might well have lighted up, as did his, when the soul came into it, into power and charm, as the speaking eyes assure us even in its repose.
But I will see if I can find anything among these charms which will cure your leg.
Hesiod's diction is in the main Homeric, but one of his charms is the use of quaint allusive phrases derived, perhaps, from a pre- Hesiodic peasant poetry: thus the season when Boreas blows is the time when `the Boneless One gnaws his foot by his fireless hearth in his cheerless house'; to cut one's nails is `to sever the withered from the quick upon that which has five branches'; similarly the burglar is the `day-sleeper', and the serpent is the `hairless one'.
He stood up in the boat, lifted up both his arms, then pointed to the infallible charm.
He perched on the top of a large orange tree, whence he was able to survey the scene and to gaze at pleasure on the Princess's charms.
Poyser, who professed to despise all personal attractions and intended to be the severest of mentors, continually gazed at Hetty's charms by the sly, fascinated in spite of herself; and after administering such a scolding as naturally flowed from her anxiety to do well by her husband's niece--who had no mother of her own to scold her, poor thing
Do thou, sweet Zephyrus, rising from thy fragrant bed, mount the western sky, and lead on those delicious gales, the charms of which call forth the lovely Flora from her chamber, perfumed with pearly dews, when on the 1st of June, her birth-day, the blooming maid, in loose attire, gently trips it over the verdant mead, where every flower rises to do her homage, till the whole field becomes enamelled, and colours contend with sweets which shall ravish her most.