Charophyta

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Charophyta

[kə′räf·əd·ə]
(botany)
A group of aquatic plants, ranging in size from a few inches to several feet in height, that live entirely submerged in water.

Charophyta

 

(also Charophyceae), a phylum of algae or, according to some classifications, a class of green algae. The plants reach 1 m in height and have lateral branches that depart in whorls from multicellular nodes. Each internode consists of one cell, which may become overgrown by a bark of narrow cells that grow upward and downward from the nodes. The cell membranes are sometimes calcified. The lower parts, which are submerged in mud or sand, are colorless and have rhizoids. Vegetative reproduction occurs from various parts of the algae and from unicellular or multicellular tubercles formed on shoots in the ground. Asexual reproduction by spores is absent. The organs of sexual reproduction are multicellular: the oogoniums (spore buds), with one egg cell, and the antheridia. Fertilization occurs on the maternal plant; meiosis occurs when the oogonium sprouts, with three nuclei out of four being destroyed.

There are 300 species, making up six genera. The USSR has 45 species. The algae grow in freshwaters and in areas of seas with decreased salinity. They have the property of softening hard water. Charophyta are known in fossil form from the Devonian.

References in periodicals archive ?
Influence of abiotic environmental conditions on spatial distribution of charophytes in the coastal waters of West Estonian Archipelago, Baltic Sea.
As a decline of the occurrence and abundance of Fucus vesiculosus and charophytes has been reported in several areas in the Baltic Sea, usually connected with the worsened water quality conditions (Yousef et al.
These uncertainties arise because the macrofossil record is poor for the critical period in earth history, because consensus has not been reached on which charophytes are most closely related to embryophytes, and because charophycean life cycles are still poorly known.
5%) charophytes (Chara braunii, Chara foliolosa, Chara globularis, and Nitella flexilis), and two (4.
Besides, charophytes are an important component in the food web as part of the diet of benthic invertebrates (Kotta et al.
The deposits of the Tervete Fm, comprising weakly cemented sandstone and sand intercalated with dolomitic marls, siltstone and clay, containing a relatively low-diversity assemblage of fish, charophytes and rare trace fossils determined by Delle (1937) as Rhizocorallium devonicum, have been traditionally interpreted as having formed in a shallow, rather restricted sea of lowered salinity (Savvaitova 1998).
including charophytes, and green plants make up the large but generally related lineage "Viridiplantae" (Cavalier-Smith, 1981; Blackwell & Powell, 1995; Nakayama et al.
However, no coefficients of conservatism were given to non-native species and native charophytes.
charophytes, bivalves, and cirripeds (Mytilus trossulus, Dreissena polymorpha, Macoma balthica, Mya arenaria, and Amphibalanus improvisus).
Indeed, Pliny the Younger considered the charophytes to be members of the genus Equisetum (Plinius Secundus, 1469).