chauvinism

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chauvinism

(shō`vənĭzəm), word derived from the name of Nicolas Chauvin, a soldier of the First French Empire. Used first for a passionate admiration of Napoleon, it now expresses exaggerated and aggressive nationalism. As a social phenomenon, chauvinism is essentially modern, becoming marked in the era of acute national rivalries and imperialism beginning in the 19th cent. It has been encouraged by mass communication, originally by the cheap newspaper. Chauvinism exalts consciousness of nationality, spreads hatred of minorities and other nations, and is associated with militarism, imperialism, and racism. In the 1960s, the term "male chauvinist" appeared in the women's liberation movement; it is applied to males who refuse to regard females as equals.

Chauvinism

 

an extreme form of nationalism, involving the advocacy of national exclusivity. Chauvinists place the interests of their own nation above the interests of all others, promote national arrogance, and exacerbate national hatreds and animosities.

The term “chauvinism” first appeared in France. It derives from the name of an aggressive and bellicose recruit in the comedy The Tricolor Cockade (1831), by the brothers J.-H. and C.-T. Cogniard. The recruit, Nicolas Chauvin, was apparently based on a real Nicolas Chauvin, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who was known for his worship of Napoleon and his belief that the emperor had made France great.

The word “chauvinism” was eventually applied to many types of exaggerated nationalism. “Jingoism” came into use in Great Britain in the 1870’s as a synonym. Terms such as “social chauvinism” and “great power chauvinism” have been devised to identify particular types of chauvinism.

Chauvinism flourishes in imperialist countries. Its most extreme manifestation is the antihuman ideology and policies of fascist states. The struggle against chauvinist ideologies and their proponents has always been one of the most important tasks confronting Marxist-Leninist parties.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. “Rabochii klass i natsional’nyi vopros.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 23.
Lenin, V. I. “Kriticheskie zametki po natsional’nomu voprosu.” Ibid., vol. 24.
Lenin, V. I. “O bor’be s sotsial-shovinizmom.” Ibid. , vol.
26. Lenin, V. I. “Prikrytie sotsial-shovinistskoi politiki internatsionalisticheskimi frazami.” Ibid., vol. 27.
Marksizm-Leninizm o proletarskom internatsionalizme. Moscow, 1969.
Leninizm i natsional’nyi vopros v sovremennykh usloviiakh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.

Chauvinism

See also Bigotry, Patriotism.
Chauvin, Nicolas
soldier who passionately admired Napoleon; whence, ultranationalism. [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 518]
Helmer, Torvald
treats wife Nora as an inferior being. [Nor. Lit.: A Doll’s House]
Jingo
legendary second-century empress of Japan, victorious invader of Korea and hence the conjectural eponym of jingoism. [Jap. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
Jingoes
nickname of 19th-century English pro-war party. [Br. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
male chauvinist pig
denigrating designation for a man who treats women as inferiors. [Am. Pop. Culture: Misc.]
References in periodicals archive ?
William Hill: 5-1 Buckby Lane, 6-1 Chauvinist, 8-1 Hand In Hand, It Takes Time, Supreme Prince, 10-1 Le Duc, Venn Ottery, Whereareyounow, 14-1 First Gold, Scots Grey, 16-1 Mouseski, 25-1 Knife Edge, Turgeonev, 28-1 Simply Gifted, 33-1 Marked Man, 40-1 Amberleigh House (doubtful), Avalanche, Horus.
But there was little mistaking the most impressive winner of the day as 15-2 chance Chauvinist burst into the lead around the final turn and was ridden out all the way to the line by Norman Williamson to win by 15 lengths.
She forces the 6ft 7ins tattooed chauvinist pig to cook and clean.
Chauvinist drops down in trip after a below-par effort at Aintree, while novice Lord On The Run tackles seasoned hand-icappers for the first time.
She forms a bond with two other women, Dolly Parton and Lily Tomlin, and all three are demeaned and abused by a male chauvinist boss named Franklin Hart Jr.
CHAUVINIST came out of the Ascot gloom with the pounds 58,000 Ladbroke Hurdle in the bag yesterday and stand-in jockey Norman Williamson could hardly believe his luck.
It's tough luck on Mick as obviously he would have won on Chauvinist - even with 10st 3lb or 10st 4lb," said Henderson.
The pair had combined for a famous five-timer at Newbury in midweek but with Chauvinist handed a burden of just 10st for the race, Fitzgerald was forced instead to ride stablemate Valerio, who was tailed off when eventually pulled up.
Totesport: 9 Albuhera, Claymore, Hors la Loi, Montgermont, Too Forward, 10 Chauvinist, Cornish Sett, Europa, Made In Japan, Non So, Supreme Prince, Windsor Boy, 12 Marcel, Tikram, 14 Hand In Hand, Horus, 16 Lord Maizey, Redemption, 20 Full House, Iznogoud, 25 Quazar, 33 Seebald
I doubt I'll change your mind but I wouldn't be surprised if some woman eventually comes along and changes it for youIt happens to even the most chauvinist of piggies.
And that's where the fun comes in, as male chauvinist Catcher and the feminist Barbara find themselves at odds but as expected end up doing the dance of the sexes around the mores of the time.
He commits adultery, uses fourletter abuse in front of his children and must be the most disgraceful, idle, brainless chauvinist in history.