chauvinism

(redirected from chauvinistic)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Wikipedia.

chauvinism

(shō`vənĭzəm), word derived from the name of Nicolas Chauvin, a soldier of the First French Empire. Used first for a passionate admiration of Napoleon, it now expresses exaggerated and aggressive nationalism. As a social phenomenon, chauvinism is essentially modern, becoming marked in the era of acute national rivalries and imperialism beginning in the 19th cent. It has been encouraged by mass communication, originally by the cheap newspaper. Chauvinism exalts consciousness of nationality, spreads hatred of minorities and other nations, and is associated with militarism, imperialism, and racism. In the 1960s, the term "male chauvinist" appeared in the women's liberation movement; it is applied to males who refuse to regard females as equals.

Chauvinism

 

an extreme form of nationalism, involving the advocacy of national exclusivity. Chauvinists place the interests of their own nation above the interests of all others, promote national arrogance, and exacerbate national hatreds and animosities.

The term “chauvinism” first appeared in France. It derives from the name of an aggressive and bellicose recruit in the comedy The Tricolor Cockade (1831), by the brothers J.-H. and C.-T. Cogniard. The recruit, Nicolas Chauvin, was apparently based on a real Nicolas Chauvin, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who was known for his worship of Napoleon and his belief that the emperor had made France great.

The word “chauvinism” was eventually applied to many types of exaggerated nationalism. “Jingoism” came into use in Great Britain in the 1870’s as a synonym. Terms such as “social chauvinism” and “great power chauvinism” have been devised to identify particular types of chauvinism.

Chauvinism flourishes in imperialist countries. Its most extreme manifestation is the antihuman ideology and policies of fascist states. The struggle against chauvinist ideologies and their proponents has always been one of the most important tasks confronting Marxist-Leninist parties.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. “Rabochii klass i natsional’nyi vopros.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 23.
Lenin, V. I. “Kriticheskie zametki po natsional’nomu voprosu.” Ibid., vol. 24.
Lenin, V. I. “O bor’be s sotsial-shovinizmom.” Ibid. , vol.
26. Lenin, V. I. “Prikrytie sotsial-shovinistskoi politiki internatsionalisticheskimi frazami.” Ibid., vol. 27.
Marksizm-Leninizm o proletarskom internatsionalizme. Moscow, 1969.
Leninizm i natsional’nyi vopros v sovremennykh usloviiakh, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.

Chauvinism

See also Bigotry, Patriotism.
Chauvin, Nicolas
soldier who passionately admired Napoleon; whence, ultranationalism. [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 518]
Helmer, Torvald
treats wife Nora as an inferior being. [Nor. Lit.: A Doll’s House]
Jingo
legendary second-century empress of Japan, victorious invader of Korea and hence the conjectural eponym of jingoism. [Jap. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
Jingoes
nickname of 19th-century English pro-war party. [Br. Hist.: EB (1963) XIII, 69]
male chauvinist pig
denigrating designation for a man who treats women as inferiors. [Am. Pop. Culture: Misc.]
References in periodicals archive ?
German film, it is not a chauvinistic view to insist that native interests be defended first and foremost.
And they often hold some of the most narrow-minded, chauvinistic, antiquated notions this side of a televangelist.
an arrogant, sour, ceremonial, piously chauvinistic egomaniac?
Her negative perception of the hairier of the species is enforced by the arrival of chauvinistic guest commentator Mike Chadway (Gerard Butler).
Abby cannot find a man to win her heart, and her negative perception of the species is enforced by the arrival of chauvinistic guest commentator Mike Chadway (Gerard Butler), who makes a bold claim: by following his directions, Abby can seduce handsome next-door neighbour, Colin (Eric Winter).
In his memoir, 'Studio Head', Peters revealed that he "wanted to kill" Ray Stark, producer of "The Way We Were," when he learned that "Stark, an ogre of male chauvinistic casting-couch sexual entitlement, had molested both Lesley Ann [Warren] and Barbra when they were auditioning for him, and neither had ever really gotten over it.
Keane was rightly accused in some quarters of being chauvinistic for telling the players' wives and girlfriends to keep their Chanel-sniffing noses out of football affairs.
To make matters worse she has been conned in to parrot sitting and the recently homeless Terry Rosco, the most chauvinistic cop in Seatown, is trying to move in to her spare room and last but not least someone is trying to kill her.
As a proud Welshman myself I despise such offensive, chauvinistic sentiments and deplore that the Archdruid should endorse them.
It is not chauvinistic to say the presence of women has often been a calming influence in terms of young men starting to lay about each other,' he said.
ACTOR Campbell Scott is unmissable as Roger - a cynical, chauvinistic ad writer who says his job is to think up ways to make people feel bad about themselves.
Harinordoquy has now fanned the flames of an already potentially explosive encounter by claiming the English are ``arrogant and chauvinistic.