Direct injection of oxygen by a lance to the solid charge and melted steel can reduce electrical energy consumption by decreasing scrap melting time and direct generation of chemical energy
from oxidation reactions in the melt.
If the ice delivers 10 percent of the liberated chemical energy
to a Europan ocean, it could support one living cell per cubic centimeter, Chyba calculates.
While mimicking photosynthesis, the new reaction's chemical energy
is redirected toward novel ends, Meyer says.
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), a kind of enzyme, transfer chemical energy
to proteins in the cell, thereby powering the cell cycle's biochemical machinery.
Earth's most effective solar energy systems--green plants--can transform the sun's rays into chemical energy
with up to 95 percent efficiency.
Myosin obtains the chemical energy
needed to fuel this shortening by breaking phosphate off adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules.
Moore and Xu believe scientists might someday use it to perform tasks such as carrying drugs in the body or serving as a building block for solar cells that trap sunlight for conversion into chemical energy