Chemoprophylaxis

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chemoprophylaxis

[¦kē·mō‚prō·fə′lak·səs]
(medicine)
Use of drugs to prevent the development of infectious diseases.

Chemoprophylaxis

 

a method of preventing diseases—primarily infectious diseases—by using chemical agents. Primary chemoprophylaxis is the administering of chemical agents to healthy persons likely to become infected in epidemic focuses of cholera or plague and in regions where malaria is prevalent. Chemical agents may also be administered to individuals who come into regular contact with tuberculous patients and to persons engaging in casual sexual relations. Chemoprophylaxis helps to prevent infectious diseases and complications in surgical patients likely to experience suppuration and in patients with low immunity (for example, the administration of antibiotics to those undergoing treatment with cytostatic agents or to debilitated influenza patients to prevent inflammation of the lungs).

Secondary chemoprophylaxis is the use of chemical agents to prevent recurrences of neoplasms (for example, in leukemia or after radical excision of a tumor) and rejection of organs and tissues after transplantation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Malaria chemoprophylaxis was substantially reduced in areas with no active transmission, thus lowering costs, limiting logistics concerns, and diminishing undesirable side effects of chemoprophylactic drugs.
19) Children can be given chemoprophylactic medications based on their age and weight (Table 1), and parents should be educated about the dosing regimens of these drugs.
The WHO provided chemoprophylactic guidelines similar to those reflected in Table 1, but also included spiramycin or minocycline for five days as alternatives (WHO, 1998:28).
Screening tests, together with counseling interventions, immunizations, and chemoprophylactic regimens (i.
For these reasons, a chemoprophylactic has been the favored approach to halting malaria.
We have examined recently adapted paediatric chemoprophylactic guidelines and evaluated their effectiveness in the context of drug-resistant TB.
A major factor when considering the potential effect of screening for and treating LTBI is that suboptimal completion rates for chemoprophylactic regimens adversely affect efficacy of screening programs, thereby underscoring the need for adopting a patient-centered approach and new, faster-acting, drugs for LTBI (38).
Doxycycline is therefore the preferred chemoprophylactic agent for patients on efavirenz.
Baker PM, Fortes EG, Gazinelli G, Gilbert B (1972) Chemoprophylactic agents in schistosomiasis: eremanthine, costunolide, [alpha]-cyclocostunolide and bisabolol.
Staff who are responsible for the care of people in such settings must be familiar with appropriate diagnostic and infection control measures as well as with the proper use of vaccine and chemoprophylactic agents when an outbreak of influenza is suspected or documented.
Three similarly effective chemoprophylactic agents are currently registered in SA (Table 5), all requiring a doctor's prescription.
permethrin-impregnated uniforms and bed nets, DEET [N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide]--containing mosquito repellent, chemoprophylactic drugs).