chemotaxis

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Related to chemotactic: chemoattractants, Chemotactic factors

chemotaxis:

see taxistaxis
, movement of animals either toward or away from a stimulus, such as light (phototaxis), heat (thermotaxis), chemicals (chemotaxis), gravity (geotaxis), and touch (thigmotaxis). The turning movements of plants in response to stimuli are called tropisms.
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Chemotaxis

 

the movement of cells (zoospores, spermatozoids, leukocytes) and freely moving plants and protozoans in response to chemical stimuli. Positive chemotaxis is movement toward the source of the chemical stimulus (along the chemical concentration gradient in air or water); negative chemotaxis is movement away from the source. The phenomenon is known to exist in a number of microorganisms and invertebrates. The movement of insects in response to pheromones may also be regarded as chemotaxis.

The substances that induce chemotaxis vary from organism to organism. For example, cyclic adenosine monophosphate is an aggregating substance for soil myxomycetes of the genus Dictyostelium. Female sexual cells of the aquatic fungus Allomyces release the isoprenoid syrenin, a stimulus of chemotaxis of male sexual cells toward female cells. The mechanism by which a chemical signal is sensed (chemoreception) and the pathway to the corresponding physiological reaction, that is, oriented movement, are not thoroughly understood. Chemotaxis plays a part in the search for food, in fertilization in higher plants and animals, and in phagocytosis.

REFERENCES

Behaviour of Microorganisms. London-New York, 1973.
Chemotaxis: Its Biology and Biochemistry. Edited by E. Sorkin. Basel, 1974.

chemotaxis

[‚kē·mō′tak·səs]
(biology)
The orientation or movement of a motile organism with reference to a chemical agent.
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Platelet-derived growth factor-BB and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 induce human peripheral blood monocytes to express tissue factor.
Both were weakly up-regulated in parallel by Tilde15%, but when combined these factors showed significant induction in terms of chemotactic parameters.
As a result of binding of autoantibodies, histamine, triptase-like proteases, chemotactic factors, leukotriens and cytokines (TNF-[alpha], IL-1, IL-4, IL-5) are released from basophils and mast cells.
Sequential evaluation of serum monocyte chemotactic protein 1 among a symptomatic state and acute exacerbation and remission of asthma in children.
Among those, leukocyte chemotactic activity (20-22), leukocyte mobilization and adhesion defects (23-25), leukocyte phagocytosis and opsonization defects (26-28) and diminished bactericidal activity are frequently mentioned (29,30).
This can cause an immunoglobulin E-mediated release of eosinophilic chemotactic factor which would ultimately lead to the release of lysosomal enzymes and cytokines.
RVX-208 also has anti-inflammatory effects including effects on Interleukin-6 inhibition, vascular cell adhesion-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, factors known to be involved in atherosclerosis and plaque stability.
CCL2 is a potent chemotactic factor of prostate cancer (PCa) with important roles in development of bone metastasis.
Leukotrienes are known chemotactic agents for eosinophils.
The ability of the amoeba to have an increased rate of locomotion and its chemotactic responses to nerve cell components may be the key in its quick progression within the human brain (Marciano-Cabral & Cabral, 2007).
As expected, social disruption stress also increased levels of interleukin-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose expression is known to increase as a result of stress, and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1, which recruits monocytes to sites of injury and whose expression is also regulated by stress.
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