chemotaxis


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Related to chemotaxis: geotaxis, positive chemotaxis

chemotaxis:

see taxistaxis
, movement of animals either toward or away from a stimulus, such as light (phototaxis), heat (thermotaxis), chemicals (chemotaxis), gravity (geotaxis), and touch (thigmotaxis). The turning movements of plants in response to stimuli are called tropisms.
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Chemotaxis

 

the movement of cells (zoospores, spermatozoids, leukocytes) and freely moving plants and protozoans in response to chemical stimuli. Positive chemotaxis is movement toward the source of the chemical stimulus (along the chemical concentration gradient in air or water); negative chemotaxis is movement away from the source. The phenomenon is known to exist in a number of microorganisms and invertebrates. The movement of insects in response to pheromones may also be regarded as chemotaxis.

The substances that induce chemotaxis vary from organism to organism. For example, cyclic adenosine monophosphate is an aggregating substance for soil myxomycetes of the genus Dictyostelium. Female sexual cells of the aquatic fungus Allomyces release the isoprenoid syrenin, a stimulus of chemotaxis of male sexual cells toward female cells. The mechanism by which a chemical signal is sensed (chemoreception) and the pathway to the corresponding physiological reaction, that is, oriented movement, are not thoroughly understood. Chemotaxis plays a part in the search for food, in fertilization in higher plants and animals, and in phagocytosis.

REFERENCES

Behaviour of Microorganisms. London-New York, 1973.
Chemotaxis: Its Biology and Biochemistry. Edited by E. Sorkin. Basel, 1974.

chemotaxis

[‚kē·mō′tak·səs]
(biology)
The orientation or movement of a motile organism with reference to a chemical agent.
References in periodicals archive ?
Since behavioral and genetic similarities apparently exist between the mechanisms for chemotaxis and thermotaxis, shared cellular and molecular components have been suggested (10).
Dictyostelium discoideum is a eukaryotic microorganism found in deciduous forest soil and decaying leaves that develop as independent single cells until the exhaustion of bacterial food supply triggers a process in which up to 100,000 cells aggregate by chemotaxis towards cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate), culminating in morphogenesis and cell differentiation in the production of spores which enables the organism to survive unfavorable conditions.
Independently published in vitro studies demonstrate that pan-PI3K inhibition has some desirable effects on chemotaxis and proliferation inhibition in CLL B-cells over delta isoform-selective PI3K inhibition, which provides a rationale to clinically explore the therapeutic activity of pan-PI3K inhibition with SF1126," said Joseph Garlich, Ph.
Her poster is number 251 and is part of the session: Microbial Development, Behavior, Chemotaxis and Motility (Division I).
In service in labs for over 50 years, this soil amoeba was sequenced in 2004, entering the post-genomic era with an assured future--no surprise, given that it is a genetically tractable organism useful in studies shedding light on fundamental cell processes such as cytokinesis, motility, phagocytosis, chemotaxis, signal transduction, cell sorting, pattern formation, and cell-type determination.
Further, we have developed proprietary chemotaxis assays without the use of transwells on the instrument using standard 384-well microplates.
Kreuzer J, Denger S, Jahn L, Bader J, Ritter K, von Hodenberg E, Kubler W, "LDL Stimulates Chemotaxis of Human Monocytes Through a Cyclooxygenase-Dependent Pathway, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology," 16:1481-1487, 1996.
The topics include two-component signal transduction and chemotaxis, the structure and assembly of type IV pilins, structural determinants of Haemophilus influenzae adherence to host epithelia as variations of type V secretion, and injectosomes in gram-positive bacteria.
This forms the basis for cell-based applications using BIND([R]) technology, including cell growth, cell adhesion, stem cell biology, GPCR assays, ion channel assays, chemotaxis assays, cytotoxicity monitoring, and cellular invasion applications.
The rhPDGF-BB functions to recruit the bone healing cells and new blood vessels to the site of injury through processes termed chemotaxis, mitogenesis and angiogensis, while the TCP acts as a scaffold or lattice for the deposition of new bone.
The device's platelet-derived growth factor is touted by BioMimetic Therapeutics for having five times the rate of chemotaxis (the ability to recruit stem cells) and the ability to stimulate the replication of osteoblasts, not normally typical of bone morphogenetic proteins.