Mastication

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Mastication

 

the mechanical processing of food in the oral cavity; consists of grinding and mixing the food with saliva. The process entails the biting off of food and mashing, crushing, and grinding it between the teeth. In animals, including man, mastication is accomplished by vertical, front-to-back, and lateral movements of the lower jaw in relation to the upper jaw, brought about by the contraction of the masticatory muscles. Movements of the tongue and cheeks, which shift the food around the oral cavity, are of auxiliary significance. Considerable pressure is exerted on the teeth during mastication.

Mastication is a complex coordinated action, regulated by a special nerve center in the medulla oblongata and also by the subcortical and cortical sections of the cerebral hemisphere. Damage to the masticatory apparatus, particularly anodontia or tooth disorders, interferes with the normal processing and assimilation of food and may cause disorders in the digestive tract.

References in periodicals archive ?
In particular, Rayfield found that the dinosaur's lower jaw had a small margin of safety; that is, it couldn't withstand a load much larger than the chewing force.
Chewing gum is losing popularity, and its marketing needs to be revitalized with other uses that are coupled with health.
A new technology that was developed at Stony Brook University's School of Dental Medicine, and which can be incorporated into confections, will be used to market candy, chewing gum, and other treats that do not promote cavities often associated with their consumption.
NEW YORK, April 16, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- With the world's oldest piece of chewing gum clocking in at 9,000 years old, and the total value of the US gum industry racking up more than $19 billion in sales, chewing gum is one of the oldest and most popular activities.
Now a new chewing gum containing Phosphatidyl Serine, a nutrient derived from soya lecithin, combines the stimulating action of chewing with vital ingredients to improve mental awareness and the powers of concentration.
He recently received a patent for an, "environmentally friendly" I chewing gum that won't make a mess of the environment or your stomach.
For four hours after they finished chewing the full-fat cream cheese, their average blood triglyceride levels were higher than after they chewed the fat-free cream cheese suggesting that the full-fat cream cheese made them handle the safflower oil differently.
As new players saw older players chewing, they picked up the habit, too.
Hardin convinced his father that, rather than sell raw leaf to the manufacturers, they could make and sell their own sweet twist of chewing tobacco at a much bigger profit.
This was the immediate response of every patient to my cautioning about chewing gum.
This report analyzes the confectionery market with a focus on the chewing gum market.
Promotion celebrates parents and their little ones' chompers with daily giveaway prizes focused on the chewing milestone!